Chapter 6
Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems
Review Problems
658
Water is flowing into and discharging from a pipe Usection with a secondary discharge sectionnormal to return flow. Net x and
z
 forces at the two flanges that connect the pipes are to be determined.
Assumptions
1
The flow is steady and incompressible.
2
The weight of the Uturn and the water in it isnegligible.
4
The momentumflux correction factor for each inlet and outlet is given to be
β
= 1.03.
Properties
We take the density of water to be 1000 kg/m
3
.
F
Rx
F
Rz
30 kg/s22 kg/s
321
8 kg/s
Analysis
The flow velocities of the 3 streams arem/s3.15
]4/m)05.0()[kg/m(1000
kg/s30)4/(
23211111
====
π π ρ ρ
Dm Am
&&
V
m/s80.2
]4/m)10.0()[kg/m(1000
kg/s22)4/(
23222222
====
π π ρ ρ
Dm Am
&&
V
m/s3.11
]4/m)03.0()[kg/m(1000
kg/s8)4/(
23233333
====
π π ρ ρ
Dm Am
&&
V
We take the entire Usection as the control volume. We designate the horizontal coordinate by
x
with thedirection of incoming flow as being the positive direction and the vertical coordinate by
z
. The momentumequation for steady onedimensional flow is
∑∑∑
−=
inout
V mV m F
r&r&r
β β
. We let the
x
and
z
componentsof the anchoring force of the cone be
F
Rx
and
F
Rz
, and assume them to be in the positive directions. Thenthe momentum equations along the
x
and
z
axes become00 )( )(
3333
1122221111222211
V m F V m F
V mV m A P A P F V mV m A P A P F
Rz Rz Rx Rx
&&&&&&
β β β β
=→=+
+−−−=→−−=++
Substituting the given values,
N733
−=−=
⋅+ ⋅−−−−−=
kN 0.733m/skg1000kN1m/s)kg/s)(15.330(
m/skg1000kN1m/s)kg/s)(2.8022(03.1
4m)(0.10]kN/m)100150[(
4m)(0.05]kN/m)100200[(
222222
π π
Rx
F
N93.1
= ⋅=
2
m/skg1 N1m/s)3kg/s)(11.8(03.1
Rz
F
The negative value for
F
Rx
indicates the assumed direction is wrong, and should be reversed. Therefore, aforce of 733 N acts on the flanges in the opposite direction. A vertical force of 93.1 N acts on the flange inthe vertical direction.
Discussion
To assess the significance of gravity forces, we estimate the weight of the weight of water inthe Uturn and compare it to the vertical force. Assuming the length of the Uturn to be 0.5 m and theaverage diameter to be 7.5 cm, the mass of the water becomeskg2.2m)(0.5
4m)(0.075)kg/m1000(
4
232
=====
π π ρ ρ ρ
L D ALm
V
whose weight is 2.2
×
9.81 = 22 N, which is much less than 93.1, but still significant. Therefore,disregarding the gravitational effects is a reasonable assumption if great accuracy is not required.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, youare using it without permission.
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