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Fluid Mechanics Cengel (solutions manual)Chap06-058

Fluid Mechanics Cengel (solutions manual)Chap06-058

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Published by: NURUL SYUHADA BT ISMAIL HAJAR on Feb 17, 2010
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Chapter 6
 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems
 
Review Problems
6-58
Water is flowing into and discharging from a pipe U-section with a secondary discharge sectionnormal to return flow. Net x- and
 z 
- forces at the two flanges that connect the pipes are to be determined.
 Assumptions
1
The flow is steady and incompressible.
2
The weight of the U-turn and the water in it isnegligible.
4
The momentum-flux correction factor for each inlet and outlet is given to be
 β 
= 1.03.
 Properties
 
We take the density of water to be 1000 kg/m
3
.
 F 
 Rx
 
 F 
 Rz 
30 kg/s22 kg/s
321
8 kg/s
 Analysis
The flow velocities of the 3 streams arem/s3.15 ]4/m)05.0()[kg/m(1000 kg/s30)4/(
23211111
====
π π  ρ  ρ 
 Dm Am
&&
 m/s80.2 ]4/m)10.0()[kg/m(1000 kg/s22)4/(
23222222
====
π π  ρ  ρ 
 Dm Am
&&
 m/s3.11 ]4/m)03.0()[kg/m(1000 kg/s8)4/(
23233333
====
π π  ρ  ρ 
 Dm Am
&&
 We take the entire U-section as the control volume. We designate the horizontal coordinate by
 x
with thedirection of incoming flow as being the positive direction and the vertical coordinate by
 z 
. The momentumequation for steady one-dimensional flow is
=
inout
mm F 
r&r&r
 β  β 
. We let the
 x-
and
 z-
componentsof the anchoring force of the cone be
 F 
 Rx
and
 F 
 Rz 
, and assume them to be in the positive directions. Thenthe momentum equations along the
 x
and
 z 
axes become0-0 )( )(
3333 1122221111222211
m F m F  mm A P  A P  F mm A P  A P  F 
 Rz  Rz  Rx Rx
&&&&&&
 β  β  β  β 
==+ +==++
 Substituting the given values,
N733
==     +    =
kN 0.733m/skg1000kN1m/s)kg/s)(15.330( m/skg1000kN1m/s)kg/s)(2.8022(03.1 4m)(0.10]kN/m)100150[( 4m)(0.05]kN/m)100200[(
222222
π π 
 Rx
 F 
 
N93.1
=    =
2
m/skg1 N1m/s)3kg/s)(11.8(03.1
 Rz 
 F 
 The negative value for 
 F 
 Rx
indicates the assumed direction is wrong, and should be reversed. Therefore, aforce of 733 N acts on the flanges in the opposite direction. A vertical force of 93.1 N acts on the flange inthe vertical direction.
 Discussion
To assess the significance of gravity forces, we estimate the weight of the weight of water inthe U-turn and compare it to the vertical force. Assuming the length of the U-turn to be 0.5 m and theaverage diameter to be 7.5 cm, the mass of the water becomeskg2.2m)(0.5 4m)(0.075)kg/m1000( 4
232
=====
π π  ρ  ρ  ρ 
 L D ALm
V  
 whose weight is 2.2
×
9.81 = 22 N, which is much less than 93.1, but still significant. Therefore,disregarding the gravitational effects is a reasonable assumption if great accuracy is not required.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, youare using it without permission.
6
-
40
 
Chapter 6
 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems
 
6-59
A fireman was hit by a nozzle held by a tripod with a rated holding force. The accident is to beinvestigated by calculating the water velocity, the flow rate, and the nozzle velocity.
 Assumptions
1
The flow is steady and incompressible.
2
The water jet is exposed to the atmosphere, andthus the pressure of the water jet is the atmospheric pressure, which is disregarded since it acts on allsurfaces.
3
Gravitational effects and vertical forces are disregarded since the horizontal resistance force isto be determined.
4
Jet flow is nearly uniform and thus the momentum-flux correction factor can be takento be unity,
 β 
 
1.
 Properties
 
We take the density of water to be 1000 kg/m
3
.
 Analysis
We take the nozzle and the horizontal portion of the hose as the system such that water enters thecontrol volume vertically and outlets horizontally (this way the pressure force and the momentum flux atthe inlet are in the vertical direction, with no contribution to the force balance in the horizontal direction,and designate the entrance by 1 and the outlet by 2. We also designate the horizontal coordinate by
 x
(withthe direction of flow as being the positive direction).The momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow is
=
inout
mm F 
r&r&r
 β  β 
. We letthe horizontal force applied by the tripod to the nozzle to hold it be
 F 
 Rx
, and assume it to be in the positive
 x
direction. Then the momentum equation along the
 x
direction becomes
223222
4m)(0.05)kg/m1000(  N1m/skg1 N)(1800 40
 D AVV mm F 
e Rx
π π  ρ  ρ 
=    ====
&&
 Solving for the water outlet velocity gives
 
=
30.3 m/s.
Then the water flow rate becomes
 D
= 5 cm Nozzle
 F 
 Rx
Tripod
 /sm0.0595
3
====
m/s)(30.34m)(0.054
22
π π 
 D AV 
V  
&
 When the nozzle was released, its acceleration must have beenm/s180 N1m/skg1kg10 N1800
22nozzlenozzle
=    ==
m F a
 Assuming the reaction force acting on the nozzle and thus its acceleration to remain constant, the time ittakes for the nozzle to travel 60 cm and the nozzle velocity at that moment were (note that both the distance
 x
and the velocity
 
are zero at time
= 0)
 sa xat  x
 
0816.0m/s180m)6.0(2 2 
2221
====
 
 
m/s14.7
===
s)0816.0)(m/s180(
2
at 
Thus we conclude that the nozzle hit the fireman with a velocity of 14.7 m/s.
 Discussion
Engineering analyses such as this one are frequently used in accident reconstruction cases, andthey often form the basis for judgment in courts.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, youare using it without permission.
6
-
41
 
Chapter 6
 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems
 
6-60
During landing of an airplane, the thrust reverser is lowered in the path of the exhaust jet, whichdeflects the exhaust and provides braking. The thrust of the engine and the braking force produced after thethrust reverser is deployed are to be determined.
EES 
 Assumptions
1
The flow of exhaust gases is steady and one-dimensional.
2
The exhaust gas stream isexposed to the atmosphere, and thus its pressure is the atmospheric pressure.
3
The velocity of exhaustgases remains constant during reversing.
4
Jet flow is nearly uniform and thus the momentum-fluxcorrection factor can be taken to be unity,
 β 
 
1.
 Analysis
(
a
) The thrust exerted on an airplane is simply the momentum flux of the combustion gases in thereverse direction,
N4500
=    ==
2
m/skg1 N1m/s)kg/s)(25018(
exex
m
&
Thrust
 (
b
) We take the thrust reverser as the control volume such that it cuts through both exhaust streamsnormally and the connecting bars to the airplane, and the direction of airplane as the positive direction of 
 x
axis. The momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow in the
 x
direction reduces to
=
inout
mm F 
r&r&r
 β  β 
 
 
)20cos1( )()cos20(
i Rx Rx
m F mm F 
&&&
°+=°=
 Substituting, the reaction force is determined to be
 N8729m/s)kg/s)(25018)(20cos1(
=°+=
 Rx
 F 
 The breaking force acting on the plane is equal and opposite to this force,
N 8729
=
 breaking
 F 
 Therefore, a braking force of 8729 N develops in the opposite
 
direction tot flight.
 Discussion
This problem can be solved more generally by measuring the reversing angle from the directionof exhaust gases (
α
= 0 when there is no reversing). When
α
< 90
°
, the reversed gases are discharged in thenegative
 x
direction, and the momentum equation reduces to
)cos1( )()cos(
i Rx Rx
m F mm F 
&&&
α α 
==
 This equation is also valid for 
α
>90
°
since cos(180
°
-
α
) = - cos
α
. Using
α
= 160
°
, for example, gives
)20cos1()160cos1(
ii Rx
mm F 
&&
+==
, which is identical to the solution above.
 F 
 Rx
250 m/s160
°
 
m
&
m
&
Controlvolume
 F 
 Rx
 
α
= 160
°
 
 x
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, youare using it without permission.
6
-
42

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