Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems
Water is flowing into and discharging from a pipe U-section with a secondary discharge sectionnormal to return flow. Net x- and
- forces at the two flanges that connect the pipes are to be determined.
The flow is steady and incompressible.
The weight of the U-turn and the water in it isnegligible.
The momentum-flux correction factor for each inlet and outlet is given to be
We take the density of water to be 1000 kg/m
30 kg/s22 kg/s
The flow velocities of the 3 streams arem/s3.15
π π ρ ρ
π π ρ ρ
π π ρ ρ
We take the entire U-section as the control volume. We designate the horizontal coordinate by
with thedirection of incoming flow as being the positive direction and the vertical coordinate by
. The momentumequation for steady one-dimensional flow is
V mV m F
. We let the
componentsof the anchoring force of the cone be
, and assume them to be in the positive directions. Thenthe momentum equations along the
axes become0-0 )( )(
V m F V m F
V mV m A P A P F V mV m A P A P F
Rz Rz Rx Rx
β β β β
Substituting the given values,
The negative value for
indicates the assumed direction is wrong, and should be reversed. Therefore, aforce of 733 N acts on the flanges in the opposite direction. A vertical force of 93.1 N acts on the flange inthe vertical direction.
To assess the significance of gravity forces, we estimate the weight of the weight of water inthe U-turn and compare it to the vertical force. Assuming the length of the U-turn to be 0.5 m and theaverage diameter to be 7.5 cm, the mass of the water becomeskg2.2m)(0.5
π π ρ ρ ρ
L D ALm
whose weight is 2.2
9.81 = 22 N, which is much less than 93.1, but still significant. Therefore,disregarding the gravitational effects is a reasonable assumption if great accuracy is not required.
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