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Fluid Mechanics Cengel (solutions manual)Chap09-001

Fluid Mechanics Cengel (solutions manual)Chap09-001

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Published by: NURUL SYUHADA BT ISMAIL HAJAR on Feb 17, 2010
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PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
This Manual is the proprietary property of The McGraw-HillCompanies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) and protected by copyright and other state and federal laws. By opening and using this Manual the user agrees to the following restrictions, and if the recipient does not agreeto these restrictions, the Manual should be promptly returned unopenedto McGraw-Hill:
This Manual is being provided only to authorizedprofessors and instructors for use in preparing for the classes usingthe affiliated textbook. No other use or distribution of this Manualis permitted. This Manual may not be sold and may not bedistributed to or used by any student or other third party. No partof this Manual may be reproduced, displayed or distributed in anyform or by any means, electronic or otherwise, without the priorwritten permission of McGraw-Hill.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rightsreserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced or distributed in anyform or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hillfor their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, youare using it without permission.
 
Solution Manual, Chapter 9 – 
 Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow 
 
Chapter 9DifferentialAnalysis
General and Mathematical Problems
 
9-1C
 
Solution
We are to explain the fundamental differences between a flow domainand a control volume.
 Analysis
 
A
control volume
is used in an integral, control volume solution
. Itis a volume over which all mass flow rates, forces, etc. are specified over the entirecontrol surface of the control volume. In a control volume analysis we do not know or care about details
inside
the control volume. Rather, we solve for gross features of theflow such as net force acting on a body.
A
 flow domain
, on the other hand, is also avolume, but is used in a differential analysis
. Differential equations of motion aresolved everywhere inside the flow domain, and we
are
interested in all the detailsinside the flow domain.
 Discussion
Note that we also need to specify what is happening at the boundariesof a flow domain – these are called
boundary conditions
.
9-2C
 
Solution
We are to explain what we mean by coupled differential equations.
 Analysis
A set of coupled differential equations simply means that
theequations are dependent on each other and must be solved together rather thanseparately
. For example, the equations of motion for fluid flow involve velocityvariables in both the conservation of mass equation and the momentum equation. Tosolve for these variables, we must solve the coupled set of differential equationstogether.
 Discussion
In some very simple fluid flow problems, the equations becomeuncoupled, and are easier to solve.9-1
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rightsreserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced or distributed in anyform or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hillfor their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, youare using it without permission.
 
Solution Manual, Chapter 9 – 
 Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow 
 
9-3C
 
Solution
We are to discuss the number of unknowns and the equations neededto solve for those unknowns for a three-dimensional, unsteady, incompressible flowfield.
 Analysis
There are
four unknowns
(velocity components
u
,
v
,
w
, and pressure
 P 
) and thus we need to solve
four equations
:
 
one from conservation of mass which is a scalar equation
 
three from Newton’s second law which is a vector equation
 Discussion
These equations are also coupled in general.
9-4C
 
Solution
We are to discuss the number of unknowns and the equations neededto solve for those unknowns for a three-dimensional, unsteady, compressible flowfield with significant variations in both temperature and density.
 Analysis
There are
six unknowns
(velocity components
u
,
v
,
w
,
 ρ 
,
, and
 P 
)and thus we need to solve
six equations
:
 
one from conservation of mass which is a scalar equation
 
three from Newton’s second law which is a vector equation
 
one from the energy equation which is a scalar equation
 
one from an equation of state (e.g. ideal gas law) which is a scalar equation
 Discussion
These equations are also coupled in general.
9-5C
 
Solution
We are to express the divergence theorem in words.
 Analysis
For vector 
G
,
the volume integral of the divergence of 
G
overvolume
is equal to the surface integral of the normal component of 
G
takenover the surface
 A
that encloses the volume
.
 Discussion
The divergence theorem is also called
Gauss’s theorem
.9-2
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rightsreserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced or distributed in anyform or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hillfor their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, youare using it without permission.

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