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Job Analysis in HRM

Job Analysis in HRM

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Published by stylishani

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Published by: stylishani on Feb 17, 2010
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06/14/2013

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Job Analysis: Overview
Job Analysis
is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular jobduties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. Job Analysis is a process where judgments are made about data collectedon a job.
Job analysis
, which is also called job review or job classification, is a systematicexploration of the tasks, duties, responsibilities and accountabilities of a job. Theprocess of job analysis involves collection of background information, selection of representative jobs to be analyzed, collection of job analysis information,development of a job description and job specification.
The formal and systematic methods of job analysis
are functional jobanalysis, the position analysis questionnaire, and the critical incident technique.Job analysis is useful for preparing job descriptions and job specifications whichare the basis for most of the HR activities like recruitment, training, performanceappraisal, industrial relations and wage and salary administration.
Job design
determines the way in which work should be performed which, inturn, affects the degree of authority of an employee over the work; the scope of decision-making by the employee; the number of tasks an employee has toperform; and employee satisfaction. The main objectives of job design are tomeet organization requirements such as higher productivity, operationalefficiency and quality; and to simultaneously satisfy the psychological andsociological needs of the employees.
The Job; not the person
An important concept of Job Analysis is that theanalysis is conducted of the Job, not the person. While Job Analysis data may becollected from incumbents through interviews or questionnaires, the product of the analysis is a description or specifications of the job, not a description of theperson.
1. Purpose of Job Analysis
The purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document the '
 job relatedness
' of employment procedures such as training, selection, compensation, andperformance appraisal.
Determining Training Needs
 Job Analysis can be used in training/"needs assessment" to identify or develop:
training content
assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training
equipment to be used in delivering the training
 
Methods of training (i.e., small group, computer-based, video,classroom...)
 Job Analysis can be used in compensation to identify or determine:
skill levels
compensable job factors
work environment (e.g., hazards; attention; physical effort)
responsibilities (e.g., fiscal; supervisory)
required level of education (indirectly related to salary level)
 Job Analysis can be used in selection procedures to identify or develop:
 job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions;
appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salaryshould be offered to a candidate;
minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screeningapplicants;
interview questions;
selection tests/instruments (e.g., written tests; oral tests; job simulations);
applicant appraisal/evaluation forms;
orientation materials for applicants/new hires
Performance Review
 Job Analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop:
goals and objectives
performance standards
evaluation criteria
length of probationary periods
duties to be evaluated
2. APPROACHES FOR COLLECTION OF JOBINFORMATION:
There are different approaches to job design –
the engineering approach
,
thehuman relations approach
,
the job characteristics approach
and
thesociotechnical approach
. An effectively designed job enhances employeeproductivity and satisfaction. Modern management has many job design options,which can transform monotonous and routine jobs into more challenging andmotivating ones. Some of the popular job design options are job rotation, jobenlargement and job
 
3. METHODS FOR GETTING JOB ANALYSIS:
Methods of collecting job analysis information include:
OBSERVATION METHODS
Methods of observation include direct observation, work methods analysis, criticalincident technique.
Direct Observation is a method of job analysis to observe and record behavior / events /activities / tasks / duties while something is happening.
Work methods analysis is used to describe manual and repetitive production jobs, such asfactory or assembly-line jobs. Work methods analysis includes time and motion studyand micro-motion analysis.
Critical incident technique is a method of job analysis used to identify work behaviorsthat classify in good and poor performance.
Interview method is a useful tool of job analysis to ask questions to both incumbents andsupervisors in either an individual or a group setting. Interview includes structuredInterviews, unstructured interview, open-ended questions.
QUESTIONNAIRE METHODS
Questionnaire methods include 6 techniques as follows:
PAQ model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis. It developed by McCormick,Jeanneret, and Mecham (1972), is a structured instrument of job analysis to measure jobcharacteristics and relate them to human characteristics. It consists of 195 job elementsthat describe generic human work behaviors.

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