ε
LoS Rq
α π
−
R
ψ
R
h
LoS Tp
α
Fig. 2. The
l
th and
k
th cylinders from Fig. 1 with the detailed geometry of the LoS , SBT, SBR, and DB rays.
elements at the
T
x
and the
R
x
is denoted by
d
T
and
d
R
,respectively. It is assumed that
d
T
and
d
R
are much smallerthan the radii
R
t
1
and
R
r
1
. The symbols
p,m,l
,
m,l,q
,
p,n,k
,
n,k,q
,
m,l,n,k
, and
p,q
denote distances
A
(
p
)
T
–
S
(
m,l
)
T
,
S
(
m,l
)
T
–
A
(
q
)
R
,
A
(
p
)
T
–
S
(
n,k
)
R
,
S
(
n,k
)
R
–
A
(
q
)
R
,
S
(
m,l
)
T
–
S
(
n,k
)
R
, and
A
(
p
)
T
–
A
(
q
)
R
respectively, as shown in Fig. 1. For ease of reference, Fig. 2shows only one of the
L
cylindric surfaces around the
T
x
and one of
F
cylindric surfaces around the
R
x
and details thegeometry of the LoS , SBT, SBR, and DB rays. Angles
θ
T
and
θ
R
in Fig. 2 describe the orientation of the
T
x
and
R
x
antenna array in the
x
–
y
plane, respectively, relative to the
x
axis. Similarly, angles
ψ
T
and
ψ
R
describe the elevation of the
T
x
’s antenna array and the
R
x
’s antenna array relative tothe
x
–
y
plane, respectively. The
T
x
and
R
x
are moving withspeeds
v
T
and
v
R
in directions described by angles
γ
T
and
γ
R
in the
x
–
y
plane (relative to the
x
axis), respectively. Thesymbols
α
(
m,l
)
T
and
α
(
n,k
)
T
are the azimuth angles of departures(AAoD) of the waves that impinge on the scatterers
S
(
m,l
)
T
and
S
(
n,k
)
R
, respectively, whereas
α
(
m,l
)
R
and
α
(
n,k
)
R
are theazimuth angles of arrivals (AAoA) of the waves scattered from
S
(
m,l
)
T
and
S
(
n,k
)
R
, respectively. Similarly, the symbols
β
(
m,l
)
T
and
β
(
n,k
)
R
denote the elevation angle of departure (EAoD) andthe elevation angle of arrival (EAoA), respectively. Finally, thesymbols
α
LoSRq
,
α
LoSTp
denote the AAoDs and AAoAs of theLoS paths. For ease of reference, the parameters de
ﬁ
ned inFigs. 1 and 2 are summarized in Table I.Observe from the 3D geometrical model in Fig. 1 that somewaves from the
T
x
antenna elements may traverse directlyto the
R
x
antenna elements (LoS rays) , while others aresinglebounced at the
T
x
(i.e., the waves from the
T
x
antennaelements scatter from the scatterers located around the
T
x
before arriving at the
R
x
antenna elements), singlebouncedat the
R
x
(i.e., the waves from the
T
x
antenna elements scatterfrom the scatterers located around the
R
x
before arriving atthe
R
x
antenna elements), and/or doublebounced (i.e., thewaves from the
T
x
antenna elements impinge on the scattererslocated around the
T
x
and scatter from the scatterers locatedaround the
R
x
before arriving at the
R
x
antenna elements).Hence, the input delayspread function of the link
A
(
p
)
T

A
(
q
)
R
TABLE ID
EFINITION OF THE PARAMETERS USED IN THE CONCENTRIC

CYLINDERSGEOMETRICAL MODEL
.
D
The distance between the centers of the Tx and Rx cylinders.
)(
lt
R
,
)(
k r
R
The radius of the
th
l
Tx and
th
k
Rx cylinder, respectively.
T
d
,
R
d
The spacing between two adjacent antenna elements at the Tx andRx, respectively.
T
θ
,
R
θ
The orientation of the Tx and Rx antenna array in the xy plane(relative to the
x
axis), respectively.
T
ψ
,
R
ψ
The elevation of the Tx’s and Rx’s antenna array relative to the xy plane, respectively.
T
v
,
R
v
The velocities of the Tx and Rx, respectively.
T
γ
,
R
γ
The moving directions of the Tx and Rx, in the xy plane (relativeto the
x
axis), respectively.
T
h
,
R
h
The distances
)
'
,
T T
OOd
and
)
'
,
R R
OOd
, respectively.
1
t
R
,
2
t
R
,
1
r
R
,
2
r
R
The min and max radii of the cylinders around the Tx and Rx,respectively.
),(
lmT
α
,
),(
k nT
α
The azimuth angles of departure (AAoD) of the waves thatimpinge on the scatterers
),(
lmT
S
and
),(
k n R
S
, respectively.
),(
lm R
α
,
),(
k n R
α
The azimuth angles of arrival (AAoA) of the waves scattered from
),(
lmT
S
and
),(
k n R
S
, respectively.
),(
lmT
β
,
),(
k nT
β
The elevation angles of departure (EAoD) of the waves thatimpinge on the scatterers
),(
lmT
S
and
),(
k n R
S
, respectively.
),(
lm R
β
,
),(
k n R
β
The elevation angles of arrival (EAoA) of the waves scatteredfrom
),(
lmT
S
and
),(
k n R
S
, respectively.
LoS Rq
α
,
LoS Tp
α
The AAoA and the AAoD of the LoS paths, respectively.
lm p
,,
ε
,
qlm
,,
ε
,
k n p
,,
ε
,
qk n
,,
ε
,
k nlm
,,,
ε
and
pq
ε
The distances
)
),()(
,
lmT pT
S Ad
,
)
)(),(
,
q RlmT
AS d
,
)
),()(
,
k n R pT
S Ad
,
)
)()(
,
n RmT
S S d
,
)
)(),(
,
q Rk n R
AS d
,
)
),(),(
,
k n RlmT
S S d
, and
)
)()(
,
q R pT
A Ad
, respectively.
can be written as a superposition of the LoS, SBT, SBR, andDB rays, viz.
h
pq
(
t,τ
) =
h
SBT pq
(
t,τ
)+
h
SBR pq
(
t,τ
)+
h
DB pq
(
t,τ
)+
h
LoS pq
(
t,τ
)
.
(1)The singlebounced components of the input delayspreadfunction are, respectively,
h
SBT pq
(
t,τ
) =
η
T
K
+ 1lim
M
→∞
1
√
M
L
l
=1
M
(
l
)
m
=1
ξ
m,l
g
m,l
(
t
)
×
δ
(
τ
−
τ
m,l
)
G
p
α
(
m,l
)
T
,β
(
m,l
)
T
G
q
α
(
m,l
)
R
,β
(
m,l
)
R
,
(2)
h
SBR pq
(
t,τ
) =
η
R
K
+ 1lim
N
→∞
1
√
N
F
k
=1
N
(
k
)
n
=1
ξ
n,k
g
n,k
(
t
)
×
δ
(
τ
−
τ
n,k
)
G
p
α
(
n,k
)
T
,β
(
n,k
)
T
G
q
α
(
n,k
)
R
,β
(
n,k
)
R
,
(3)where
G
p
(
·
,
·
)
and
G
q
(
·
,
·
)
denote the antenna patterns of the
p
th transmit and
q
th receive antenna element, respectively.Furthermore,
ξ
m,l
,
ξ
n,k
, denote the amplitudes and
τ
m,l
, and
τ
n,k
denote the time delays of the multipath components.Finally, functions
g
m,l
(
t
)
and
g
n,k
(
t
)
are de
ﬁ
ned as
g
m,l
(
t
) =
e
−
j
2
πλ
(
p,m,l
+
m,l,q
)+
jφ
m,l
(4)
e
j
2
πt
f
T
max
cos(
α
(
m,l
)
T
−
γ
T
)cos
β
(
m,l
)
T
+
f
R
max
cos(
α
(
m,l
)
R
−
γ
R
)cos
β
(
m,l
)
R
,g
n,k
(
t
) =
e
−
j
2
πλ
(
p,n,k
+
n,k,q
)+
jφ
n,k
(5)
e
j
2
πt
f
T
max
cos(
α
(
n,k
)
T
−
γ
T
)cos
β
(
n,k
)
T
+
f
R
max
cos(
α
(
n,k
)
R
−
γ
R
)cos
β
(
n,k
)
R
,
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