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1260 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 3, MARCH 2009
Three-Dimensional Modeling and Simulation of Wideband MIMO Mobile-to-Mobile Channels
Alenka G. Zaji´c,
Member, IEEE 
, and Gordon L. St¨uber,
Fellow, IEEE 
 Abstract
—A three-dimensional (3-D) geometrical propagationmodel for wideband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)mobile-to-mobile (M-to-M) communications is proposed. Basedon the geometrical model, a 3-D parametric reference modelfor wideband MIMO M-to-M multipath fading channels isdeveloped. From the reference model, the corresponding space-time-frequency correlation function is derived for a 3-D non-isotropic scattering environment. It is shown that the time andfrequency dispersion of a wide sense stationary uncorrelatedscattering channel cannot be treated independently, contraryto common practice. From the space-time-frequency correlationfunction, the space-Doppler power spectral density and thepower space-delay spectrum are derived and compared withmeasured data. Finally, a new sum-of-sinusoids based simulationmodel for wideband MIMO M-to-M Ricean fading channels isproposed. The statistics of the simulation model are veri
ed bysimulation. The results show that the simulation model is a goodapproximation of the reference model.
 Index Terms
—Mobile-to-mobile channels, wideband channels,fading channel simulator, Ricean fading, sum-of-sinusoids.
I. I
NTRODUCTION
M
OBILE ad-hoc wireless networks, intelligent trans-portation systems, and relay-based cellular networks alluse mobile-to-mobile (M-to-M) communication channels. M-to-M communication systems are equipped with low elevationantennas and have both the transmitter
T
x
and the receiver
R
x
in motion. To successfully design M-to-M systems, itis necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the outdoormultipath fading channel and its statistical properties. Earlystudies of single-input single-output (SISO) M-to-M Rayleighfading channels have been reported by Akki and Haber in[1] and [2]. They showed that the received envelope of M-to-M channels is Rayleigh faded under non-line-of-sight (NLoS)conditions, but the statistical properties differ from conven-tional
xed-to-mobile cellular radio channels. They were the
Manuscript received April 9, 2007; revised June 23, 2008; acceptedDecember 10, 2008. The associate editor coordinating the review of this paperand approving it for publication was K. Sowerby.This work was prepared through collaborative participation in the Collab-orative Technology Alliance for Communications & Networks sponsored bythe U.S. Army Research Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DAAD19-01-2-0011. The U.S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distributereprints for Government purposes notwithstanding any copyright notationthereon. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the of 
cial policies,either expressed or implied, of the Army Research Laboratory or the U. S.Government.A. G. Zaji´c was with the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering,Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA. She is now withAlZaComm, Atlanta GA 30328.Gordon L. St¨uber is with the School of Electrical and Computer Engi-neering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA (e-mail:stuber@ece.gatech.edu).Digital Object Identi
er 10.1109/TWC.2009.070379
rst to propose a two-dimensional (2-D) reference model forsingle-input single-output (SISO) M-to-M Rayleigh fadingchannels. Methods for simulating SISO M-to-M channels havebeen proposed in [3]-[5]. Channel sounding measurements fornarrowband and wideband SISO M-to-M channels have beenreported in [6]-[8]. The 2-D reference and simulation modelsfor narrowband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) M-to-M channels have been proposed in [9]-[12]. All thesepreviously reported 2-D models assume that the
eld incidenton the
T
x
or the
R
x
antenna is composed of a number of waves travelling only in the
horizontal
plane. This assumptionis accurate only for certain environments, e.g., rural areas. Thisassumption does not seem appropriate for an urban environ-ment where the
T
x
and
R
x
antenna arrays are often locatedin close proximity to and lower than surrounding buildingsand other objects. To overcome these shortcomings, we haverecently proposed a three-dimensional (3-D) reference modelfor
narrowband 
MIMO M-to-M multipath fading channels[14]. However, to completely characterize MIMO M-to-Mmultipath fading channels, it is necessary to develop 3-Dmodels for
wideband 
MIMO M-to-M channels.This paper introduces new 3-D reference and simulationmodels for
wideband 
MIMO M-to-M channels and shows thatthese models can match the measured data in a variety of urbanenvironments,which is a lacking feature of previouslyreported2-D and 3-D M-to-M models. Here, we consider MIMOcommunication links between vehicles travelling on urbansurface street (USS) and Interstate highway (IH) road surfaces.The previously reported 2-D and 3-D models do not alwaysmatch the SISO measurements for vehicles travelling in aconvoy fashion [6]-[8], especially for IH environments. Onepossible reason for this mismatch is the presence of single-bounced rays, which are ignored in the previously proposedmodels (i.e., only double-bounced rays are considered). Notethat the single-bounced rays, if present, bear more energy thanthe double-bounced rays, and cannot be ignored. In this paper,we propose a 3-D mathematical reference model for widebandMIMO M-to-M channels that accounts for line-of-sight (LoS),single-bounced at the transmit side (SBT), single-bounced atthe receive side (SBR), and double-bounced (DB) rays.To describe our 3-D reference model, we
rst introduce a 3-D geometrical model for wideband MIMO M-to-M channels,called the concentric-cylinders model. This model is extensionof the two-cylinder model for narrowband M-to-M channelsproposed in [14]. Then, we propose a parametric referencemodel that employs the concentric-cylinders geometry andconstructs the input delay-spread function as a superpositionof LoS, SBT, SBR, and DB rays. The parametric nature of themodel makes it adaptable to a variety of propagation environ-
1536-1276/09$25.00c
2009 IEEE
Authorized licensed use limited to: VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on July 28, 2009 at 06:44 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
 
ZAJI´C and ST¨UBER: THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELING AND SIMULATION OF WIDEBAND MIMO MOBILE-TO-MOBILE CHANNELS 1261
ments, i.e., USS and IH environments. From the new referencemodel, we derive the corresponding space-time-frequency cor-relation function (STF-CF) for a 3-D non-isotropic scatteringenvironment and show that the time and frequency dispersionof a wide sense stationary uncorrelated scattering (WSSUS)channel cannot be treated independently. Furthermore, wederive the space-Doppler power spectral density (sD-psd) andthe power space-delay spectrum (psds) for the same scatteringenvironment. Finally, we compare the SISO sD-psd and psdswith those obtained from SISO measurements in [6]-[8] toillustrate the importance of combining the LoS, SBT, SBRand DB rays.To fully validate our 3-D reference model, we need tocompare the
rst- and second-order statistics of the proposedmodels with those obtained from the MIMO measurements.Since the only measurements available in the open literaturewere for the SISO systems, we have conducted a MIMO M-to-M channel-sounding experimental campaign along surfacestreets and on the Interstate highways in the Midtown Atlantametropolitan area. Details of the experimental equipment andmethodology, the method to process the data, the method toextract model parameters from the measured data, and thevalidation of the proposed 3-D reference model in terms of the cumulative distribution functions (CDF), STF-CF, sD-psd,psds, and level crossing rates (LCR) are presented in [15].Second-orderstatistics, such as LCR and average fade durationare non-trivial and are the subject of our work in [16]. Incontrast, this paper focuses on the detailed derivations of the STF-CF, sD-psd and psds, and shows that the statisticalcorrelation functions are largely in
uenced by the relativepower mixture of DB, SBT, SBR, and LoS ray components.This paper goes further to present a sum-of-sinusoids based(SoS) simulation model. Since our reference model assumesan in
nite number of scatterers at the
T
x
and the
R
x
,which prevents practical implementation, we propose a SoSbased simulation model for a 3-D non-isotropic scatteringenvironment that consists of a
nite number of scatterersat the
T
x
and the
R
x
. We employ a concentric-cylindersmodel that combines LoS, SBT, SBR, and DB rays and wherethe in-phase (I) and the quadrature (Q) components of thetime-variant transfer function are orthogonal functions. Thestatistical properties of our simulation model are veri
ed bycomparison with the corresponding statistical properties of thereference model. The results show that the simulation modelis a good approximation of the reference model.The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. Sec-tion II introduces the geometrical concentric-cylinders modeland presents a 3-D reference model for wideband MIMO M-to-M channels. Section III derives the STF-CF, the sD-psd, andthe psds for a 3-D non-isotropic scattering environment. Sec-tion IV details the SoS simulation model. Finally, Section Vprovides some concluding remarks.II. A R
EFERENCE
M
ODEL FOR
W
IDEBAND
MIMOM-
TO
-M C
HANNELS
This paper considers a wideband MIMO communicationlink between vehicles travelling on USS and IH road surfaces.It is assumed that both the
T
x
and the
R
x
are in motion
 y x 
 D
),(
lm
 z
)(
l
 R
),(
n R
lm p
,,
ε 
nlm
,,,
ε 
qn
,,
ε 
)(
 p
 A
)~(
 p
 A
)~(
q R
 A
)(
q R
 A
1
 R
2
 R
 z
1
 R
2
 R
)(
 R
 
qlm
,,
ε 
n p
,,
ε 
q p
,
ε 
 R
lm p
,,~
ε 
qn
~,,
ε 
qlm
~,,
ε 
n p
,,~
ε 
Fig. 1. The concentric-cylinders model with LoS , SBT, SBR, and DB raysfor a MIMO M-to-M channel with
L
t
=
L
r
= 2
antenna elements.
and equipped with
L
t
transmit and
L
r
receive low elevatedomnidirectional antenna elements. The radio propagation inoutdoor metropolitan environments is characterized by 3-DWSSUS with either LoS or NLoS conditions between the
T
x
and the
R
x
. The MIMO channel can be described by an
L
r
×
L
t
matrix
H
(
t,τ 
) = [
h
ij
(
t,τ 
)]
L
r
×
L
t
of the input delay-spread functions.Fig. 1 shows the concentric-cylinders model with LoS,SBT, SBR, and DB rays for a MIMO M-to-M channel with
L
t
=
L
r
= 2
antenna elements. Vertical concentric cylindersare chosen to model the scattering surfaces and diffractingedges because most of the structures in outdoor metropolitanenvironments (e.g., buildings, highway dividers, etc.) havestraight vertical surfaces. The elementary
2
×
2
antenna con
g-uration in Fig. 1 will be used later to construct uniform linearantenna arrays with an arbitrary number of omnidirectionalantenna elements. The concentric-cylinders model de
nes fourvertical cylinders, two around the
T
x
and another two aroundthe
R
x
, as shown in Fig. 1. Around the transmitter,
xedomnidirectional scatterers occupy the volume between cylin-ders of radii
R
t
1
and
R
t
2
. It is assumed that the
scattererslie on
L
cylindric surfaces of radii
R
t
1
R
(
l
)
t
R
t
2
, where
1
l
L
. The
l
th cylindric surface contains
(
l
)
xedomnidirectional scatterers, and the
(
m,l
)
th transmit scattereris denoted by
(
m,l
)
, where
1
m
(
l
)
. Similarly,around the receiver,
xed omnidirectional scatterers occupya volume between cylinders of radii
R
r
1
and
R
r
2
. It isassumed that the
scatterers lie on
cylindric surfaces of radii
R
r
1
R
(
k
)
r
R
r
2
, where
1
k
. The
k
th cylindricsurface contains
(
k
)
xed omnidirectional scatterers, andthe
(
n,k
)
th receive scatterer is denoted by
(
n,k
)
R
, where
1
n
(
k
)
. The distance between the centers of the
T
x
and
R
x
cylinders is
D
. It is assumed that the radii
R
t
2
and
R
r
2
are suf 
ciently smaller than the distance
D
(local scatteringcondition). Furthermore, it is assumed that the distance
D
is smaller than
4
R
t
1
R
r
1
L
r
/
(
λ
(
L
t
1)(
L
r
1))
so that thechannel does not experience keyhole behavior [17], where
λ
denotes the carrier wavelength. The spacing between antenna
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1262 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 3, MARCH 2009
 y x 
 D
v
γ 
),(
lm
α 
),(
lm
 
 β 
),(
lm
 z
),(
n R
 β 
),(
n R
 R
v
),(
n R
α 
 R
γ 
h z
),(
lm R
α π 
),(
n
 β 
),(
lm R
 β π 
)',(
lm
)',(
n R
)(
l
 R
)(
 R
θ π 
)(
 p
 A
 
ψ 
O
'
O
)~(
 p
 A
),(
n
α 
lm p
,,
ε 
nlm
,,,
ε 
 R
O
'
 R
O
)(
q R
 A
)~(
q R
 A
 R
θ π 
qn
,,
 
ε 
 LoS  Rq
α π 
 R
ψ 
 R
h
 LoS Tp
α 
Fig. 2. The
l
th and
k
th cylinders from Fig. 1 with the detailed geometry of the LoS , SBT, SBR, and DB rays.
elements at the
T
x
and the
R
x
is denoted by
d
and
d
R
,respectively. It is assumed that
d
and
d
R
are much smallerthan the radii
R
t
1
and
R
r
1
. The symbols
 p,m,l
,
m,l,q
,
 p,n,k
,
n,k,q
,
m,l,n,k
, and
 p,q
denote distances
A
(
 p
)
(
m,l
)
,
(
m,l
)
A
(
q
)
R
,
A
(
 p
)
(
n,k
)
R
,
(
n,k
)
R
A
(
q
)
R
,
(
m,l
)
(
n,k
)
R
, and
A
(
 p
)
A
(
q
)
R
respectively, as shown in Fig. 1. For ease of reference, Fig. 2shows only one of the
L
cylindric surfaces around the
T
x
and one of 
cylindric surfaces around the
R
x
and details thegeometry of the LoS , SBT, SBR, and DB rays. Angles
θ
and
θ
R
in Fig. 2 describe the orientation of the
T
x
and
R
x
antenna array in the
x
y
plane, respectively, relative to the
x
-axis. Similarly, angles
ψ
and
ψ
R
describe the elevation of the
T
x
’s antenna array and the
R
x
’s antenna array relative tothe
x
y
plane, respectively. The
T
x
and
R
x
are moving withspeeds
v
and
v
R
in directions described by angles
γ 
and
γ 
R
in the
x
y
plane (relative to the
x
-axis), respectively. Thesymbols
α
(
m,l
)
and
α
(
n,k
)
are the azimuth angles of departures(AAoD) of the waves that impinge on the scatterers
(
m,l
)
and
(
n,k
)
R
, respectively, whereas
α
(
m,l
)
R
and
α
(
n,k
)
R
are theazimuth angles of arrivals (AAoA) of the waves scattered from
(
m,l
)
and
(
n,k
)
R
, respectively. Similarly, the symbols
β 
(
m,l
)
and
β 
(
n,k
)
R
denote the elevation angle of departure (EAoD) andthe elevation angle of arrival (EAoA), respectively. Finally, thesymbols
α
LoSRq
,
α
LoSTp
denote the AAoDs and AAoAs of theLoS paths. For ease of reference, the parameters de
ned inFigs. 1 and 2 are summarized in Table I.Observe from the 3-D geometrical model in Fig. 1 that somewaves from the
T
x
antenna elements may traverse directlyto the
R
x
antenna elements (LoS rays) , while others aresingle-bounced at the
T
x
(i.e., the waves from the
T
x
antennaelements scatter from the scatterers located around the
T
x
before arriving at the
R
x
antenna elements), single-bouncedat the
R
x
(i.e., the waves from the
T
x
antenna elements scatterfrom the scatterers located around the
R
x
before arriving atthe
R
x
antenna elements), and/or double-bounced (i.e., thewaves from the
T
x
antenna elements impinge on the scattererslocated around the
T
x
and scatter from the scatterers locatedaround the
R
x
before arriving at the
R
x
antenna elements).Hence, the input delay-spread function of the link
A
(
 p
)
-
A
(
q
)
R
TABLE ID
EFINITION OF THE PARAMETERS USED IN THE CONCENTRIC
-
CYLINDERSGEOMETRICAL MODEL
.
 
 D
 The distance between the centers of the Tx and Rx cylinders.
)(
l
 R
,
)(
 R
 The radius of the
th
l
Tx and
th
Rx cylinder, respectively.
,
 R
 The spacing between two adjacent antenna elements at the Tx andRx, respectively.
θ 
,
 R
θ 
 The orientation of the Tx and Rx antenna array in the x-y plane(relative to the
 x 
-axis), respectively.
ψ 
,
 R
ψ 
 The elevation of the Tx’s and Rx’s antenna array relative to the x-y plane, respectively.
v
,
 R
v
 The velocities of the Tx and Rx, respectively.
γ 
,
 R
γ 
 The moving directions of the Tx and Rx, in the x-y plane (relativeto the
 x 
-axis), respectively.
h
,
 R
h
The distances
)
'
,
OO
and
)
'
,
R R
OO
, respectively.
1
 R
,
2
 R
,
1
 R
,
2
 R
 The min and max radii of the cylinders around the Tx and Rx,respectively.
),(
lm
α 
,
),(
n
α 
 The azimuth angles of departure (AAoD) of the waves thatimpinge on the scatterers
),(
lm
and
),(
n R
, respectively.
),(
lm R
α 
,
),(
n R
α 
 The azimuth angles of arrival (AAoA) of the waves scattered from
),(
lm
and
),(
n R
, respectively.
),(
lm
 β 
,
),(
n
 β 
 The elevation angles of departure (EAoD) of the waves thatimpinge on the scatterers
),(
lm
and
),(
n R
, respectively.
),(
lm R
 β 
,
),(
n R
 β 
 The elevation angles of arrival (EAoA) of the waves scatteredfrom
),(
lm
and
),(
n R
, respectively.
 LoS  Rq
α 
,
 LoS Tp
α 
 The AAoA and the AAoD of the LoS paths, respectively.
lm p
,,
ε 
,
qlm
,,
ε 
,
n p
,,
ε 
,
qn
,,
ε 
,
nlm
,,,
ε 
and
 pq
ε 
 The distances
)
),()(
,
lm p
 A
,
)
)(),(
,
q Rlm
A
,
)
),()(
,
n R p
 A
,
)
)()(
,
n Rm
,
)
)(),(
,
q Rn R
A
,
)
),(),(
,
n Rlm
, and
)
)()(
,
q R p
A A
, respectively.
can be written as a superposition of the LoS, SBT, SBR, andDB rays, viz.
h
 pq
(
t,τ 
) =
h
SBT  pq
(
t,τ 
)+
h
SBR pq
(
t,τ 
)+
h
DB pq
(
t,τ 
)+
h
LoS pq
(
t,τ 
)
.
(1)The single-bounced components of the input delay-spreadfunction are, respectively,
h
SBT  pq
(
t,τ 
) =
 
η
+ 1lim
→∞
1
L
l
=1
(
l
)
m
=1
ξ
m,l
g
m,l
(
t
)
×
δ
(
τ 
τ 
m,l
)
 
G
 p
α
(
m,l
)
,β 
(
m,l
)
G
q
α
(
m,l
)
R
,β 
(
m,l
)
R
,
(2)
h
SBR pq
(
t,τ 
) =
 
η
R
+ 1lim
→∞
1
k
=1
(
k
)
n
=1
ξ
n,k
g
n,k
(
t
)
×
δ
(
τ 
τ 
n,k
)
 
G
 p
α
(
n,k
)
,β 
(
n,k
)
G
q
α
(
n,k
)
R
,β 
(
n,k
)
R
,
(3)where
G
 p
(
·
,
·
)
and
G
q
(
·
,
·
)
denote the antenna patterns of the
 p
th transmit and
q
th receive antenna element, respectively.Furthermore,
ξ
m,l
,
ξ
n,k
, denote the amplitudes and
τ 
m,l
, and
τ 
n,k
denote the time delays of the multipath components.Finally, functions
g
m,l
(
t
)
and
g
n,k
(
t
)
are de
ned as
g
m,l
(
t
) =
e
j
2
πλ
(
p,m,l
+
m,l,q
)+
m,l
(4)
e
j
2
πt
max
cos(
α
(
m,l
)
γ
)cos
β
(
m,l
)
+
R
max
cos(
α
(
m,l
)
R
γ
R
)cos
β
(
m,l
)
R
,g
n,k
(
t
) =
e
j
2
πλ
(
p,n,k
+
n,k,q
)+
n,k
(5)
e
j
2
πt
max
cos(
α
(
n,k
)
γ
)cos
β
(
n,k
)
+
R
max
cos(
α
(
n,k
)
R
γ
R
)cos
β
(
n,k
)
R
,
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