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Book 4 Water From Small Dams

Book 4 Water From Small Dams

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Published by: ringoplantfreak on Feb 17, 2010
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Water from Small Dams
A handbook for technicians,farmers and others onsite investigations, designs, cost estimates, construction and maintenanceof small earth dams
An oval-shaped charco dam on the flat plain A circular hillside dam in the hilly land of west of the Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. Machakos in Eastern Kenya.A spillway is being excavated for the manual construction of a valley dam with a straightembankment in a narrow part of a valley near Lake Victoria in Western Kenya.
Erik Nissen-PetersenforDanish International Development Assistance (Danida)2006
 
 ii
Technical handbooks in this series:
Titles Contents1 Water for rural communities
Lessons learnt from Kitui pilot projects
2 Water supply by rural builders
Procedures for being rural contractors
 3 Water surveys and designs
Survey, design and cost of water projects
4 Water from rock outcrops
Rock catchment tanks, masonry and earth dams
5 Water from dry riverbeds
Wells, subsurface dams, weirs and sand dams
6 Water from roads
Rainwater harvesting from roads
7 Water from small dams
Ponds and small earth dams built manually
8 Water from roofs
Various types of roof catchments for domestic useThese handbooks can be obtained free of charge by either collecting them from the office of ASAL Consultants Ltd., or by paying through bank transfer the cost of sending the manuals bycourier. For further details, please contact:asal@wananchi.comwith copy toasalconsultants@yahoo.com 
Published byASAL Consultants Ltd. for the Danish International Development Assistance (Danida) in KenyaText, drawings, photos byErik Nissen-PetersenComputer drawings and tracing byCatherine W. WanjihiaProofs and editing byProf. Elijah K. Biamah, Amin Verjee and Steen S. LarsenPrinter Modern Lithographic (K) Ltd., P.O. Box 52810-00200, Nairobi, KenyaWebsite byEdwin OndakoDistribution byASAL Consultants Ltd., P.O. Box 739, Sarit 00606, Nairobi, Kenyaasal@wananchi.com asalconsultants@yahoo.com  Fax/Tel : 254 020 2710296 Mobiles: 0733 619 066 and 0722 599 165Website :www.waterforaridland.com 
Copyright.The copyright of the handbooks in this series is the property of the Royal DanishEmbassy in Kenya. Downloading from the Internet and photocopying of the handbooks ispermitted provided the source is acknowledged
.
 
Contents
Acknowledgement
…………………………………………………………vii
Disclaimer
………………………………………………………………. vii
Foreword
……………………………………………………………….. viii
Technical vocabulary
………………………………………………….. ix
 Illustrations of technical terms
……………………………………….. x
Measurements and conversions
………………………………………. x
 
Chapter 1. Introduction to small dams
……………………… 11.1 Purpose and Scope of this handbook …………………………… 11.2 Types of small dams ……………………………………………. 11.3 Constraints and limitations ……………………………………... 61.4 Other considerations ……………………………………………. 6
Chapter 2. Considerations before construction
………….. 72.1 Feasibility and planning for small earth dams …………………. 72.2 Considerations before building small earth dams ……………… 72.3 Water quality and health ……………………………………….. 72.4 Water requirements …………………………………………….. 82.5 Total water storage requirement ……………………………….. 102.6 Economic feasibility …………………………………………… 102.7 Estimating the benefits of dams ………………………….…….. 112.8 Determining the most cost-effective option ….………….…….. 122.9 Determining the cost and benefit of a hand-dug well …….……. 122.10 Other considerations ……………………………………….…... 132.11 Environmental impact ……………………………………….…. 14
Chapter 3.
 
Community participation and management
143.1 Community involvement ……………………………………….. 143.2 Gender issues …………………………………………………… 143.3 Ownership ………………………………………………………. 153.4 Legal requirements ……………………………………………… 153.5 Specific local issues …………………………………………….. 16
Chapter 4. Charco dams
………………………………………. 174.1 Site selection ……………………………………………………. 174.2 Design …………………………………………………………… 184.3 Marking out a charco dam ………………………………………. 204.4 Construction …………………………………………………….. 214.5 Constraints ………………………………………………………. 21
Chapter 5. Hillside dams
…………….………………………... 22
 
5.1 Site selection ……………………………………………………. 225.2 Design ………………………………………………………….. 225.3 Construction ……………………………………………………. 26

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