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Weather Instruments

Weather Instruments

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Published by kirkemman
all you need to know about weather instruments....
all you need to know about weather instruments....

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Published by: kirkemman on Feb 17, 2010
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Weather Instruments
An
Anemometer
is a device for measuring the wind speed, and is oneinstrument used in a weather station. The term is derived from the Greekword
anemos
, meaning wind. The first known description of an anemometerwas given by Leon Battista Alberti in around 1450
.
.Anemometers can be divided into two classes: those that measure thewind's velocity, and those that measure the wind's pressure; but as there is aclose connection between the pressure and the velocity, an anemometerdesigned for one will give information about both.A
barograph
is a recording aneroid barometer. It produces a paper orfoil chart called a
barogram
that records the barometric pressure over time.Barographs use one or more aneroid cells acting through a gear or lever trainto drive a recording arm that has at its extreme end either a scribe or a pen.A scribe records on smoked foil while a pen records on paper using ink, heldin a knib. The recording material is mounted on a cylindrical drum which isrotated slowly by clockwork. Commonly, the drum makes one revolution perday, per week, or per month and the rotation rate can often be selected bythe user.
 
A
barometer
is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure.It can measure the pressure exerted by the atmosphere by using water, air,or mercury. Pressure tendency can forecast short term changes in theweather. Numerous measurements of air pressure are used within surfaceweather analysis to help find surface troughs, high pressure systems, andfrontal boundaries.
Hygrometers
are instruments used for measuring relative humidity. Asimple form of a hygrometer is specifically known as a
psychrometer
andconsists of two thermometers, one of which includes a dry bulb and one of which includes a bulb that is kept wet to measure
wet-bulb temperature
.Modern electronic devices use temperature of condensation, changesin electrical resistance, and changes in electrical capacitance to measurehumidity changes.
Radar
is an object detection system that useselectromagneticwavesto identify the range, altitude, direction, or speed of both moving and fixedobjects such as aircraft, ships, motor vehicles, weather formations, andterrain. The term
RADAR
was coined in 1941 as
 
anacronymfor
RA
dio
D
etection
 A
nd 
R
anging
. The term has since enteredthe English language as a standard word,
radar 
, losing the capitalization.Radar was originally called
RDF
(Radio Direction Finder, now used as a totallydifferent device) in the United Kingdom, in order to preserve the secrecy of its ranging capability
.
A radar system has a transmitter that emitsmicrowavesorradio waves. These waves are in phase when emitted, and when they come intocontact with an object are scattered in all directions. The signal is thus partlyreflected back and it has a slight change of wavelength (and thusfrequency) if the target is moving. The receiver is usually, but not always, inthe same location as the transmitter. Although the signal returned is usuallyvery weak, the signal can be amplified through use of electronic techniquesin the receiver and in the antenna configuration. This enables radar to detectobjects at ranges where other emissions, such assoundorvisible light, would be too weak to detect. Radar uses includemeteorologicaldetectionof precipitation,measuring ocean surface waves,air traffic control,policedetection of speedingtraffic, determining the speed of  baseballs and by the military.A
rain gauge
is a type of instrument used bymeteorologistsandhydrologists to gather and measure the amount of liquidprecipitation(asopposed to solid precipitation that is measured by asnow gauge) over a setperiod of time. The first known records of rainfalls were kept by theAncientGreeksabout 500 B.C. This was followed 100 years later by people

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