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UNIT1-Tachymetry

# UNIT1-Tachymetry

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Arranged by Hamed Saharani
Arranged by Hamed Saharani

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05/28/2015

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C 2005 / 2 / 0ENGINEERING SURVEY 2
TACHYMETRY
OBJECTIVES
General Objective
: To know and understand the basic concepts of distancemeasurement.
Specific Objectives
: At the end of the unit you should be able to :-

Explain the basic concepts of Optical DistanceMeasurement.

Discuss the system that has been use in tachymetry.

Calculate the distance by using the tachymetry system.

Explain the procedure to implement the field work

Explain the steps to process the observation data.

List errors in tachymetry survey.

Explain the application of tachymetry in land surveying
UNIT 1

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2 C 2005 / 1 1
INPUT
1.1

INTRODUCTION
The word tachymetry is derived from the
Greek takhus metron
meaning ‘swiftmeasurement’.

It is a branch of surveying where height and distances between groundmarks are obtained by optical means only. An example of tachymetry method is thestadia method. This method employs rapid optical means of measuring distance using atelescope with cross hairs (Figure 1.1) and a stadia rod (one stadium = about 607 feet).The distance between marks can be obtained without using a tape. The tachymeter is anytheodolite adapted, or fitted with an optical device to enable measurement to be madeoptically
.
Figure 1.1 Two Types of Stadia Hair
1.2 PRINCIPLES OF OPTICAL DISTANCE MEASUREMENT
The tachymetry measurements are based on a common principle. Consider anisosceles triangle; the perpendicular bisector of the base is directly proportional to thelength of this base. If the base length and paralactic angles are known, then the length of the perpendicular bisector can be calculated. (Figure 1.2)CrossHairreticle

ENGINEERING SURVEY 2 C 2005 / 1 2
Figure 1.2 Isosceles Triangle Geometry(Source : Ukur Kejuruteraan Asas, Abdul Hamid Mohamed)
Distance AB = ½ (Cd) x Cot α/2
If distance AB = D, distance Cd = S , soWherebyD = distance between two pointS = base line
α = paralactic angle

1.3 TACHYMETRY SYSTEM
The alternatives of the tachymetry system are classified based on the basicprinciples, which are:a)

Fixed angle:1)

The stadia systemi) Incline Sights With The Staff Verticalii) Incline Sights With The Staff Normalb)

Variable angle1)

tangential system
–
vertical staff 2)

subtence system
–
horizontal staff
D = ½ S Cot α/2