important part of an eye that is responsible for vision is
.The retina lies at the back of the eye and it acts likethe film in a camera, receiving and processingeverything you see.In humans there are two types of light sensitivecells in the retina:
2.1 What are Rod cells and Cone cells?
Rod cells pick up movement out of the corner of theeye and also, in a normal eye it is the rods thatoperate in poor light or at night. There are about120 million rods in each eye and they are morenumerous towards the outer edge of the retinaThe cone cells are used in colour vision and in close precision work like reading. There are not as manycones and they are more concentrated in the centreof the retina (the Macula).
2.2 Disease of eye
2.2.1 Retinitis pigmentosa
Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is the name given to agroup of hereditary diseases of the retina of the eye
RP may be caused by a breakdown in the functionof the rods or the cones in some part of the retina.The retina is so complex that breakdowns mayoccur in a variety of ways and so RP is not a singledisorder but a great number of disorders. The breakdown of cone function may be called Macular Degeneration.
2.2.2 Macular Degeneration
Macular is a sensitive area in the centre of the retinawhich provides us with sight in the centre of our field of vision. It allows us to see the fine detailswhen we look directly at something. In macular degeneration, a layer beneath the retina, called theretinal pigment epithelium (RPE), gradually wearsout from its lifelong duties of disposing of retinalwaste products.A large proportion of macular degeneration casesare age- related.Age related Macular Degeneration (AMD) usuallyaffects people over the age of 50 and there are twodistinct types - "wet" AMD and "dry" AMD. "Wet"AMD results from the growth of new blood vesselsin the choroid, causing an accumulation of fluid inthe macula which leads to retinal damage. This typeof degeneration can often be successfully arrested by laser surgery."Dry" AMD represents at least 80% of all AMDcases and results in atrophy of the Retina. Usuallyyellowish-white round spots called drusen firstappear in a scattered pattern deep in the macula.Later degeneration of both the Pigment Epitheliumand the cones begins. While AMD is not inheritedin a predictable way, heredity may be involved tosome extent.
3. BIONIC EYE
A group of American scientists have given avisually impaired grandmother a chance to see her grandchildren dance and play football with a“Bionic eye”.Linda Moorfoot, who suffers from the eye conditionRetinitis Pigmentosa that causes blindness,isthrilled after having part of her sight restored by aBionic eye.
3.1 Artificial Silicon Retina (ASR)
The ASR is a silicon chip 2 mm in diameter and1/1000 inch in thickness. It contains approximately3,500 microscopic solar cells called"microphotodiodes," each having its ownstimulating electrode. These microphotodiodes aredesigned to convert the light energy from imagesinto thousands of tiny electrical impulses to