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Backgrounder

Backgrounder

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Published by: rain0033 on Feb 18, 2010
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BACKGROUNDERONWOLF CONSERVATIONIN ONTARIO
 
Ontario Ministry of Natural ResourcesJune 2005
 
Backgrounder on Wolf Management in Ontario June 2005 
i
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0
 
INTRODUCTION..................................................................................1
 
2.0
 
HISTORIC AND PRESENT IMPORTANCE OF WOLVES..................2
 
2.1.
 
Social Importance............................................................................................2
 
2.2.
 
Ecological importance.....................................................................................2
 
2.3.
 
Economic Importance.....................................................................................3
 
2.4.
 
Aboriginal Interests.........................................................................................3
 
3.0
 
WOLF BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY......................................................4
 
3.1.
 
General Description.........................................................................................4
 
3.1.1.
 
Taxonomic Status and Distribution of Ontario
Canis
Species....................4
 
3.1.2.
 
Physical Description...................................................................................6
 
3.1.3.
 
Provincial Population Size, Trend and Population Significance.................7
 
3.2.
 
Ecological Role/Significance of Wolves......................................................10
 
3.2.1.
 
Prey Distribution and Status, and Selection by Wolves............................10
 
3.2.2.
 
Wolf Habitat Requirements......................................................................13
 
Denning Habitat................................................................................................13
 
Rendezvous Sites............................................................................................13
 
Habitat Fragmentation and Connectivity...........................................................14
 
3.2.3.
 
Population Dynamics and Community Ecology........................................15
 
Population Structure and Density.....................................................................15
 
Population Density...........................................................................................16
 
Reproduction....................................................................................................16
 
Dispersal..........................................................................................................17
 
Mortality............................................................................................................18
 
Intra-specific Strife.......................................................................................18 
 
Diseases and Parasites...............................................................................18 
 
Other Mortality Factors.................................................................................20 
 
3.2.4.
 
Natural Regulation...................................................................................20
 
3.3.
 
Human Impacts on Wolf Populations...........................................................20
 
3.3.1.
 
Human-caused Mortality..........................................................................21
 
Hunting.............................................................................................................21
 
Trapping...........................................................................................................22
 
Defense of Property and Public Safety.............................................................23
 
3.3.2.
 
Predation on Domestic Animals...............................................................23
 
3.3.3.
 
Predation on Wild Prey............................................................................24
 
 
Backgrounder on Wolf Management in Ontario June 2005 
 ii
3.4.
 
Knowledge Gaps............................................................................................24
 
3.4.1.
 
Dispersal and Immigration........................................................................25
 
3.4.2.
 
Role of Disease........................................................................................25
 
3.4.3.
 
Wolf-human Relationships.......................................................................25
 
3.4.4.
 
Population Assessment............................................................................25
 
3.4.5.
 
Effects of Wolves on Low Density Prey....................................................25
 
3.4.6.
 
Pup Survival.............................................................................................25
 
4.0
 
RESEARCH........................................................................................26
 
4.1.
 
Ecological Research......................................................................................26
 
4.2.
 
Genetic research............................................................................................27
 
5.0
 
WOLF CONSERVATION APPROACHES.........................................27
 
5.1.
 
Legislation and Policy Affecting Wolves.....................................................27
 
5.1.1.
 
International.............................................................................................27
 
Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Faunaand Flora (CITES)............................................................................................27
 
Agreement on International Humane Trapping Standards (AIHTS).................28
 
5.1.2.
 
National....................................................................................................28
 
Species at Risk.................................................................................................28
 
5.1.3.
 
Provincial..................................................................................................29
 
Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act...................................................................29
 
Crown Forest Management..............................................................................31
 
Species at Risk.................................................................................................32
 
Planning Act.....................................................................................................33
 
Regulated Parks and Protected Areas.............................................................33
 
Provincial Parks Act.....................................................................................33
 
Conservation Reserves Act..........................................................................34
 
Wilderness Areas Act...................................................................................35 
 
Ontario’s Living Legacy Land Use Strategy......................................................35
 
Livestock, Poultry and Honey Bee Protection Act............................................36
 
5.2.
 
Habitat Management......................................................................................37
 
6.0
 
EDUCATION......................................................................................38
 
6.1.
 
Public..............................................................................................................38
 
6.2.
 
Hunters and Trappers....................................................................................39
 
7.0
 
LITERATURE CITED.........................................................................39
 

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