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A Unified Power Quality Conditioner With Voltage Sag or Swell

A Unified Power Quality Conditioner With Voltage Sag or Swell

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A UNIFIED POWER QUALITY CONDITIONER WITH VOLTAGE SAG/SWELLCOMPENSATION CAPABILITY
Maurício Aredes and Rodrigo M. Fernandes
UFRJ – Federal University of Rio de JaneiroCOPPE – Electrical Engineering ProgramLEMT – Laboratory for Power Electronics and Medium Voltage Applicationswww.lemt.ufrj.br; aredes@ufrj.br; rodrigo@eneltec.com.br 
 Abstract:
Traditionally, Unified Power Quality Condi-tioners (UPQCs) are designed for simultaneous compen-sation of voltage and current harmonics and imbalances.Moreover, the shunt active filter of the UPQC behaves asa controlled
current 
source to compensate the load cur-rent, whereas the series active filter behaves as a con-trolled
voltage
source to compensate the supply voltage.Here, a dual configuration of UPQC, denominated as theiUPQC, is presented. In contrast to the conventionalUPQC, the shunt active filter of the iUPQC behaves as anideal ac
voltage
source and the series one as an ideal ac
current 
source. One negative aspect in the conventionalapproach of UPQC is the voltage and current PWM con-trols of the power converters. The PWM controls mustdeal with nonsinusoidal compensating voltage and cur-rent references, with aleatory frequency spectra. In thiscase, it is impossible to theoretically unsure zero steady-state error in all frequencies components. Contrarily, theiUPQC has a fundamental positive-sequence current ref-erence for the series active filter and a fundamental posi-tive-sequence voltage reference for the shunt active filter.Beside all those compensation characteristics of theUPQC, the iUPQC can also keep the load voltage con-stant, at the nominal value. In other words, it has voltagesag/swell compensation capability, with fast response,comparable to that of a Dynamic Voltage Restorer(DVR). Simulation and experimental results are pre-sented to validate the proposed iUPQC controller.
 Keywords
– 
active filters, p-q theory, power quality,unified power quality conditioners
 
I. INTRODUCTIONIMULTANEOUS active filtering of grid voltage andload current is becoming a real issue due to the actualtendencies to restrict standards and grid codes from the har-monic pollution point of view. On the other hand, the indus-try and other sectors are employing an increasing number of sensitive loads that requires high quality of electric power supply [1]. Voltage sags and voltage swells cause seriouslosses in the manufacture processes.The Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) is a flexi- ble approach for simultaneously active filtering the supplyvoltage and the load current [2] to [7]. In other words, theUPQC protects critical loads against voltage disturbance propagating through the power system, and compensates thecurrent of these protected loads to ensure sinusoidal and ba-lanced current drained from the network.Usually, the series active filter of a UPQC is used for compensating the supply voltage, whereas the shunt one isused for compensating the load current [4]. Therefore, theseries active filter behaves as a controlled voltage source andthe shunt active filter behaves as a controlled current source,as shown in Fig. 1. Therefore, the conventional approach of UPQC (Fig. 1) is controlled by nonsinusoidal voltage (
*
v
)and current (
*
i
) references.The compensating voltage reference will comprises a fun-damental component, if the UPQC controller is designed for compensating voltage sag/swell or voltage imbalances, aswell as all harmonic components in the supply voltage
v
 within a given frequency range to be compensated. On theother hand, the compensating current reference comprises afundamental component to compensate the power factor of the load and all harmonic currents of the nonlinear load.This aleatory multiple-frequency characteristic of the voltageand current references makes the design of the controls andconverters of the active filters very difficult. Actually, in a practical implementation, the performance of the UPQC isdegenerated by the limited capability of the PWM controls totrack accurately their nonsinusoidal references.To overcome the above mentioned drawbacks of the con-ventional UPQC, this paper presents a dual approach, calledhere as iUPQC. The idea consists in having both the seriesand the shunt converter of the iUPQC being controlled as a
 sinusoidal 
 
current 
source and as a
 sinusoidal 
 
voltage
source,respectively. This idea is not new. It was originally proposed by
Moran
, in 1989 [8]. In that work, a single-phase universal power conditioner based on current-sourced converters(CSC) was proposed. Later, three-phase voltage-sourced
S
LL
L
L
C
PWMcurrentcontrolPWMvoltagecontrol
UPQCcontroller 
dc 
L
 
Fig. 1. Conventional arrangement of a Unified Power QualityConditioner (UPQC).
 
978-1-4244-3370-4/09/$25.00 © 2009 IEEE218
Authorized licensed use limited to: Synopsys. Downloaded on January 8, 2010 at 23:09 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
 
converters (VSC), in a similar configuration as the UPQCshown in Fig. 1, were applied in UPS systems, but also hav-ing the series converter as a controlled current source and theshunt converter as a controlled voltage source [9][10].Fig. 2 shows the principles of the iUPQC. The shunt ac-tive filter generates a fundamental positive-sequence voltageat nominal value. Thus, the compensated load is suppliedunder regulated, sinusoidal and balanced voltage conditions(
v
 L
). On the other hand, the series active filter imposes afundamental positive-sequence current (
i
) to be drainedfrom the network. In steady state, the series active filter drains a positive-sequence current in phase with the funda-mental positive-sequence component of the supply voltage
v
. The magnitude of 
i
correspond to the average active power demanded by the load, plus an active current compo-nent to compensate for losses inside the iUPQC.Since the shunt active filter of the iUPQC behaves as anideal positive-sequence voltage source, it offers ideally nullimpedance for harmonic currents, whereas the series activefilter offers ideally infinite impedance. Hence, all harmoniccurrents injected by the nonlinear load will be forced to flowinto the shunt active filter of the iUPQC. In other words, theshunt converter of the iUPQC behaves also as an active filter (
i
) for the load current. Additionally, the shunt active filter supplies also the reactive power of the load, since the seriesactive filter drains only the corresponding active portion (
i
)of the load current.All voltage disturbances that may propagate in the power system, including voltage sags or swells, harmonics and im- balances, which may affect the supply voltage
v
 
will remainas a voltage drop across the terminals of the series active fil-ter (
v
= v
 L
– v
), because the load voltage
v
 L
comprises onlya fundamental positive-sequence component, imposed by theshunt active filter.II. POWER CIRCUIT OF THE iUPQCThe power circuit of the iUPQC is the same of a conven-tional UPQC. Fig. 3 shows the power circuit and the voltag-es and currents measurements that are needed as input sig-nals in the iUPQC controller. The iUPQC is composed of two PWM converters connected back-to-back through acommon dc link. Three single-phase transformers are em- ployed to insert the series converter between the power sys-tem and the load. The convenience of using or not shunttransformer is more related to economical issues regardingvoltage/current levels and power ratings of the system and power converters of the iUPQC.The main difference between the UPQC (Fig. 1) and theiUPQC (Fig. 3) consists in replacing the
nonsinusoidal 
 
vol-tage
PWM control by a
 sinusoidal 
 
current 
PWM control inthe series converter, and replacing the
nonsinusoidal current 
PWM control by a
 sinusoidal voltage
PWM control in theshunt converter.If compared with the conventional UPQC (Fig. 1), theiUPQC (Fig. 3) has a simpler controller and reduced number of measurements. Only the system voltage, the dc-link vol-tage and the load current are necessary as inputs to theiUPQC controller. The other two measurements, the shunt-converter voltage (
v
 f 
) and the series-converter current (
i
 f 
) areused in the minor feedback loops of the PWM controls.Since the series converter behaves as a controlled currentsource that drains a fundamental positive-sequence current(
i
+1
) in phase with the supply voltage
v
, it provides high im- pedance for the harmonic currents of the nonlinear load. Thecompensating voltage
v
 
that appears across the series trans-formers corresponds to the difference between the load vol-tage
v
 L
, imposed by the shunt converter, and the supply vol-tage
v
. Since
v
 L
 
corresponds to a fundamental positive-sequence voltage reference
v
+1
, all voltage imbalance, vol-tage sags or swells, as well as voltage harmonics that mayappear in
v
are compensated by
v
. The shunt converter of the iUPQC provides low impedance for harmonic currentscoming from the nonlinear load, and adjusts the magnitude of the load voltage
v
 L
, as well as supplies the fundamental reac-tive current of the load (power factor compensation). Notethat the current reference
i
+1
of the series converter is in phase with the fundamental positive-sequence component
1
+
of the supply voltage
v
.
LL
harmonicharmonicsensitivesensitiveloadsloads
UPQCUPQCUPQCUPQC
LL
LL
ϕϕ
LL
LL
 
Fig. 2. The dual principle of Unified Power Quality Conditioner:the iUPQC.
 
L L
L
L
C
PWMvoltagecontrolPWMcurrentcontrol
iUPQCcontroller 
dc 
L
+1
+1
 
Fig. 3. Power circuit of the iUPQC.
 
978-1-4244-3370-4/09/$25.00 © 2009 IEEE219
Authorized licensed use limited to: Synopsys. Downloaded on January 8, 2010 at 23:09 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
 
III. THE iUPQC CONTROLLER The controller of the iUPQC is very simple. It is based onthe
 p-q Theory
[11]. A fundamental part of this controller isthe synchronizing control circuit based on a Phase Locked-Loop (PLL), which tracks accurately the frequency and phase angle of the fundamental positive-sequence componentof the supply voltage
v
. Fig. 4 shows the complete control block diagram of the iUPQC controller.Since the present approach of iUPQC is designed for ap- plication in three-phase three-wire systems (without neutralconductor), zero-sequence components are out of interest.Hence, simplified 2x2 matrixes of the Clarke Transforma-tions [11], and a reduced numbers of measurements can beemployed as input signals for the iUPQC controller, asshown in Fig. 4. In this case, two line-to-line voltages,
v
Sab
 and
v
Sbc
, of the power supply and two line currents,
i
 La
and
i
 Lb
, of the load are used as inputs to the main part of theiUPQC controller. Additionally, the dc-link voltage is usedas input in the dc-link voltage regulator of the iUPQC con-troller.The voltages and currents measurements in Fig. 4 are nor-malized, such that they have unity amplitudes at nominalconditions. The supply voltages
v
Sab
and
v
Sbc
are transformedto
αβ
-variables [11], and given as inputs to a well-known to- pology of PLL circuit, the
q-PLL
[12]. The two auxiliarycontrol signals
v
α 
and
v
 β 
produced by the
q-PLL
are puresinusoidal with constant unity amplitudes, and tracks conti-nuously the frequency and phase angle of the fundamental positive-sequence component (
1
+
) of the supply voltage
v
.In terms of normalized values, these auxiliary signals corres- pond to the desired voltage that the shunt converter of theiUPQC has to generate to permanently supply the protectedload under nominal voltage conditions. A gain
is used to properly adjust the amplitudes of the voltage references
v
+1
α 
 and
v
+1
 β 
with respect to the dc-link voltage reference
dcRef 
,such that they effectively produce the desired nominal vol-tage through the voltage PWM control of the shunt converter.Fig. 5 shows the voltage PWM control used in the shuntconverter of the iUPQC. Note that it has been implementedin terms of 
αβ
-variables. This allows the use of only twofeed-forward control loops, which minimizes the errors in thegenerated voltage
v
 f 
at the secondary side of the shunt trans-former. This feed-forward control utilizes just a gain
 K 
tomultiply the voltage error. Hence, this control structure can-not provide zero-error in steady state. It was preferred in thisinitial stage of development of the iUPQC due to its simplici-ty. In future developments, since the compensating voltagereferences
v
+1
α 
and
v
+1
 β 
are sinusoidal at a known frequency,the feed-forward structure will be replaced by Proportional-Resonant Controllers (PR-Controller) [13].The current references
i
+1
α 
and
i
+1
 β 
for the series converter are calculated from the average real power (
 p
) of the load,the output signal
 p
loss
 
given by the dc-link voltage regulator,and from the auxiliary signals
v
α 
and
v
 β 
produced by the
q-PLL
. The Current Reference block in Fig. 4 realizes thefollowing equation.
( )( )
11
lossloss
i ppvi ppv
α α  β β 
++
+
=
+
 (1)When the iUPQC is compensating voltage sags or swells,the signal
 p
loss
 
is responsible for providing a circulating real(active) power through the dc-link of the iUPQC that is ne-cessary to keep the load being supplied under nominal vol-tage. A simple example follows to better understand this fea-ture. Assume that the supply voltage
v
 
drops to 0.8 pu, andthe load voltage
v
 L
is maintained at 1.0 pu by the shunt con-verter. For simplicity, assume that the load is draining 1.0 puof current with unity power factor. Under these conditions,the PI-controller of the dc-link voltage regulator will adjustthe signal
 p
loss
, such that (1) will provide a 1.25 pu of currentreference (
i
+1
) for the series converter, to provide energy bal-ance inside the iUPQC. In other words, the signal
 p
loss
,forces the series active filter to drain from the power systemthe total energy delivered to the load. That is the uniquecondition to keep constant the dc-link voltage of the iUPQC.From (1), it is possible to see that the series active filter al-ways drains only active current from the power system (unity power factor). Therefore, in steady state, the power drainedfrom the network is equal to the power supplied to the load,that is,
SL
 p
=
. Note that
 p
= v
i
= 0.8x1.25 = 1 pu.
abc
αβ
PLLcircuit
Low-passfilter 
p-qTheory
abc
αβ
currentreference
 p
loss
V
dc Ref 
PI–Controller + _ ++Series activefilter controlShunt activefilter controldc-link voltageregulator 
 p
Synchronizing control
v
 β 
v
α 
i
α 
i
 β 
v
α 
Sab
 
Sab
Sbc 
 
Sbc 
La
Lb
dc 
 
dc 
v
v
+1
α
v
+1
β
+1
α
+1
β
 
Fig. 4. Basic control block diagram of the iUPQC controller.
 
+++ _  _ 
v
+1
α
abc 
αβ
+++
αβ
abc 
SinusPWMS7S8S9S10S11S12
v
+1
β
v
 fab
v
 fbc
 K 
 K 
 
Fig. 5. Voltage PWM control for the shunt converter of theiUPQC.
 
978-1-4244-3370-4/09/$25.00 © 2009 IEEE220
Authorized licensed use limited to: Synopsys. Downloaded on January 8, 2010 at 23:09 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

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