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WTO Regime and Its Impact on Pakistan

WTO Regime and Its Impact on Pakistan

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Published by ayeshaaslam87
WTO Regime and Its Impact on Pakistan
WTO Regime and Its Impact on Pakistan

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Published by: ayeshaaslam87 on Feb 18, 2010
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31
ST
COMMON TRAINING PROGRAMME
WTO REGIME AND ITS IMPACT ONPAKISTAN
SYNDICATE NO. 1O
CIVIL SERVICES ACADEMY, LAHORE
 
WTO Regime and its Impact on Pakistan
 
31
ST 
COMMON TRAINING PROGRAMME CONTENTS 
 
WTO REGIME AND ITS IMPACT ON PAKISTAN......................................................................1
CIVIL SERVICES ACADEMY, LAHORE.......................................................................................1ABBREVIATIONS...............................................................................................................................6ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.................................................................................................................8SYNDICATE MEMBERS...................................................................................................................9RESEARCH METHODOLOGY......................................................................................................10
P
URPOSE
 
OF
ESEARCH
.........................................................................................................................10C
OMPOSITION
 
OF
S
YNDICATE
.................................................................................................................10
METHODOLOGY FOR RESEARCH.............................................................................................11EXECUTIVE SUMMARY................................................................................................................121 CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION TO WTO..........................................................................14
1.1 I
 NTRODUCTION
................................................................................................................................141.2 H
ISTORY
 
OF
WTO..........................................................................................................................141.3 I
MPORT
Q
UOTAS
 
AND
T
ARIFFS
..........................................................................................................151.4 A
RGUMENTS
 
FOR 
P
ROTECTION
...........................................................................................................171.5 W
HY
 
A
 
 NEED
 
FOR 
F
REE
T
RADE
.........................................................................................................181.6 U
 NDERSTANDING
 
THE
WTO.............................................................................................................191.7 G
UIDING
P
RINCIPLES
 
OF
WTO.........................................................................................................20
1.7.I Most Favoured Nation Treatment (MFN)...........................................................................201.7.II National Treatment............................................................................................................211.7.III Stability and predictability through binding.....................................................................211.7.IV Transparency....................................................................................................................211.7.V Trade liberalization............................................................................................................21
1.8 A
GREEMENTS
C
ONCERNING
T
RADE
 
IN
G
OODS
.....................................................................................21
1.8.I Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing measures......................................................211.8.II Agreement on Anti-Dumping.............................................................................................221.8.III Agreement on Safeguards.................................................................................................221.8.IV Agreement on Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMS)...........................................221.8.V Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and on Sanitary and PhytosanitaryMeasures (SPS)............................................................................................................................221.8.VI Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs)................22
1.9 T
HE
S
TATE
 
OF
M
ARKET
A
CCESS
 
AS
 
A
ESULT
 
OF
WTO.....................................................................23
1.9.I Reduction in Tariffs.............................................................................................................231.9.II Binding on Tariffs..............................................................................................................23
1.10 D
OHA
D
EVELOPMENT
A
GENDA
.......................................................................................................23
1.10.I Implementation-related issues and concerns....................................................................23
1.10.I.a General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)...................................................................241.10.I.b Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures.............................................................................241.10.I.c Technical barriers to trade........................................................................................................241.10.I.d Trade-related investment measures (TRIMs)...........................................................................251.10.I.e Anti-dumping (GATT Article 6)..............................................................................................251.10.I.f Subsidies and countervailing measures.....................................................................................251.10.I.g Trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS)...................................................251.10.I.h Final provisions........................................................................................................................25
2 CHAPTER TWO - INDUSTRIAL SECTOR................................................................................27
- -
2
 
WTO Regime and its Impact on Pakistan
2.1 T
ARIFF
S
TRUCTURE
 
IN
P
AKISTAN
.......................................................................................................272.2 B
RIEF
EVIEW
 
OF
I
 NDUSTRIAL
S
ECTOR 
 
OF
P
AKISTAN
...........................................................................282.3 I
MPLICATIONS
 
OF
WTO
ON
I
 NDUSTRIAL
S
ECTOR 
.................................................................................29
2.3.I Exports.................................................................................................................................29
2.3.I.a Leather Products.........................................................................................................................302.3.I.b Sports Goods..............................................................................................................................302.3.I.c Surgical Equipment....................................................................................................................302.3.I.d Carpets and Rugs.......................................................................................................................30
2.3.II Imports...............................................................................................................................31
2.3.II.a Chemicals.................................................................................................................................312.3.II.b Vegetable oil.............................................................................................................................312.3.II.c Fertilizer....................................................................................................................................312.3.II.d Machinery Electrical and Non Electrical..................................................................................312.3.II.e Petroleum Products...................................................................................................................322.3.II.f Transport Equipment.................................................................................................................32
2.4 C
ONCLUSION
 
AND
ECOMMENDATIONS
...............................................................................................32
3 CHAPTER THREE- TEXTILE AND CLOTHING SECTOR....................................................34
3.1 W
ORLD
T
EXTILE
 
AND
C
LOTHING
(T&C) T
RADE
................................................................................343.2 T&C S
ECTOR 
 
OUT
 
OF
GATT 1947.................................................................................................363.3 T
HE
C
OTTON
A
RRANGEMENTS
(1961-1973).....................................................................................363.4 T
HE
M
ULTIFIBRE
A
RRANGEMENT
(1974-1994).................................................................................36
3.4.I Effects of the MFA...............................................................................................................37 3.4.II MFA…..a complete Failure...............................................................................................37 
3.5 T
HE
WTO A
GREEMENT
 
ON
T
EXTILES
 
AND
C
LOTHING
(ATC) 1995-2004 ..........................................383.6 C
RITICAL
I
SSUES
 
IN
ATC................................................................................................................40
3.6.I Tariffs Peaks and Escalation...............................................................................................413.6.II Misuse of Safeguards.........................................................................................................413.6.III ATC more restrictive?.......................................................................................................41
3.7 D
ECISION
 
OF
14 N
OVEMBER 
2001 D
OHA
M
INISTERIAL
C
ONFERENCE
....................................................413.8 T
EXTILE
 
AND
C
LOTHING
(T&C) S
ECTOR 
- M
AJOR 
C
ONCENTRATION
 
IN
P
AKISTAN
S
E
XPORTS
...................423.9 P
AKISTAN
T&C V
IS
-
À
-
VIS
G
LOBAL
T&C.........................................................................................423.10 S
TRUCTURE
 
OF
 
THE
I
 NDUSTRY
.........................................................................................................43
3.10.I Strengths of Pakistan’s Textile : .......................................................................................433.10.II Weaknesses of Pakistan’s Textile.....................................................................................443.10.III Image..............................................................................................................................443.10.IV Towards Value Addition.................................................................................................443.10.V Market Access- Direction of Exports in Post Quota Regime...........................................45
3.11 T
ARIFFS
 
IN
 
THE
P
OST
MFA P
HASE
................................................................................................473.12 P
REFERENTIAL
T
RADE
I
 N
T&C.......................................................................................................483.13 I
MPLEMENTATION
I
SSUES
................................................................................................................483.14 FORECASTING.......................................................................................................................49
3.14.I Trade Policy of Pakistan 2004 Review..............................................................................503.14.II Textile Vision 2005...........................................................................................................51
3.15 R 
ECOMMENDATIONS
.......................................................................................................................513.16 C
ONCLUSION
.................................................................................................................................53
4 CHAPTER FOUR - AGRICULTURE SECTOR..........................................................................55
4.1 I
 NTRODUCTION
................................................................................................................................554.2 W
ORLD
T
RADE
I
 N
A
GRICULTURE
S
ECTOR 
:.........................................................................................554.3 B
ACKGROUND
 
TO
URA
O
A: ............................................................................................................564.4 THE WTO REGIME ON AGRICULTURE..............................................................................574.5 T
HE
A
GREEMENT
 
ON
A
GRICULTURE
...................................................................................................57
4.5.I Market access .....................................................................................................................57 4.5.II Export competition ............................................................................................................57 4.5.III Domestic Support .............................................................................................................58
4.6 WTO D
OMESTIC
S
UBSIDY
B
OXES
....................................................................................................58
- -
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