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Logical Problems

# Logical Problems

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analytical reasoning
analytical reasoning

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01/13/2013

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LOGICAL PROBLEMS Edited
PROBLEM # 1:
In a certain mythical community, politicians never tell the truth and non-politiciansalways tell the truth. A stranger meets three natives and ask the first of them,” Areyou a politician? “The first native answers the question .The second native thenreports that the first native denied being a politician .The third native says that the firstnative is a politician.How many of these three natives are politicians?
SOLUTION:
If the first native is a politician then he lies and denies being a politician, but if he tellsthe truth and denies being a politician, in either case, then, the first native denies beinga politician.Since the second native reports that the first native denies being a politician, he tellsthe truth, and is therefore a non-politician.The third native asserts that the first native is a politician, if the first native is a politician, then the third native speaks the truth and is therefore a non-politician, but if the third native lies he is, therefore, a politician. Hence only one of the first and thirdnative is a politician, and since the second is a non-politician, there is only one politician among the three natives.
PROBLEM # 2:
Of three prisoners in a certain jail, one had normal vision, the second had only oneeye and the third was totally blind .the jailor told the prisoners that from three whitehats and two red hats, he would select three and put then on the prisoners’ heads. None could see what color hat he wore. The jailor offered freedom to the prisoner with normal vision if he could tell what color hat he wore. To prevent a weakly guessthe jailor threatened execution for any incorrect answer .the first prisoner could nottell what hat he wore. Next the jailor made the second offer to the one eyed prisoner.The second prisoner could not tell what he wore either. The jailor did not bother, but

he agreed to extend the same terms to that prisoner, but when he made the request, the blind prisoner said:“I do not need to have my sight; from my friends with eyes have said, I clearly see myhat is_________!Then did he know?
SOLUTION:
It is very difficult to answer to this question. But rather impossible.Many problems are not accurately described, and their miss description may prove somiss leading that no solution can part or parts of the description of the problem needto be rejected or replaced. But we cannot do this by over selves.From the premises given in the problem, we can prove that he wore red but we canalso prove that he wore white hat. Normal Vision W
WRWOne eye man WW
R
WBlind manWWWW
W = WhiteR = RedAs at time, he could only wear one hat, either read or white, so it is impossible toconstruct a conclusion. It indicates that problem is incomplete.Some problems in the real world more over even when they are described accuratelymay be incomplete in that some thing not originally available may be essential for thesolution. The solution may depend on some additional scientific discovery or some previously.Unimagined invention or equipment, or the search of some as yet unexploredterritory. But in the statement of the problem, all the information that is sufficient for the solution must be given; other wise we feel that the mystery writer or the problemmaker has been unfair to us.
PROBLEM # 3:
On a certain train, the crew consists of the brakeman, the fireman and the engineer.Their names listed alphabetically are Jones, Robinson, and Smith. On the train are

also three passengers with corresponding names; Mr. Jones, Mr. Robinson and Mr.Smith. The following facts are known.a) Mr. Robinson lives in Detroit.b) The brakeman lives halfway between Detroit and Chicago.c) Mr. Jones earns exactly \$ 20000 a year.d) Smith once beat the fireman at billiards.e) The brakeman’s next-door neighbor, one of the three passengers mentioned, earnsexactly three times as much as the brakeman.f) The passenger living in Chicago has the same name as the brakeman.What is the engineer’s name?
SOLUTION:
First of all we make a chart from the above given information that is; Name Brakeman FiremanEngineeJones 1
Y
2 X 3 XRobinson4 X5
Y
4 XSmith 7 X8 X9
Y
Y = OKX = CancelFrom (d), smith is not fireman as, once he beat the fireman at billiards. So cancel 8.From (e), Mr. Jones is not his neighbor because he does not earn exactly three timesas much as Brakeman. Because he earns \$20,000 a year which is not divisible by 3.From (f), the name of Brakeman is Jones because Mr. Jones is not Break man’sneighbor And Brakeman lives in half way between Detroit and Chicago. While Mr. Robinsonlives in Detroit. So Mr.Jones is only passenger who lives in Chicago. Cancel 4 and 7and 2 & 3. Now from the chart it is clear that Smith is engineer. Cancel 6 while Robinson is thefireman.
PROBLEM # 4:
The employee of a small loan company is Mr. Black, Mr. White, Mrs. Coffee, MissAmbrose, Mr. Kelly and Miss. Earn Shaw. The positions they occupy are manager,assistant manager, cashier, stenographer, teller and clerk. Though not necessary inthat order.

## Activity (24)

You're probably wrong on other problems too, but that's okay. It teaches anyone trying to cheat a lesson, lol.
You are wrong on 13 too. The 3rd guy only disputed the last guy's statement, not the first. He IS a politician because the 1st is obviously lying, since a non-politicican can't say that truthfully, the 2nd guy is telling the truth that 2 are because the 1st and 3rd ARE politicians, and the 3rd guy is lying when he says "that isn't true either" referring to what the 2nd guy said.
You are wrong on problem seven. Slim did it. Curly could not be lying when he said "I did not Kill Kilraine." and when he said "I was in Detroit the night of March 17." because two lies aren't allowed. He'd have to be lying on both if he was the killer, becasue the killer was two miles from Pontiac, MI. Detroit is over 15 miles from Pontiac.
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