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Cvd Case Study

Cvd Case Study

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Published by jracan

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Published by: jracan on Feb 18, 2010
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11/25/2012

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I. INTRODUCTION Cerebrovascular disease is a group of brain dysfunctions relatedto disease of the blood vessels supplying the brain. Hypertension is the most important cause; it damages the blood vessel lining, endothelium, exposing the underlying collagen where platelets aggregate to initiate a repairing process which is not always complete and perfect. Sustained hypertension permanently changesthe architecture of the blood vessels making them narrow, stiff, deformed, uneven and more vulnerable to fluctuations in blood pressure. A stroke is caused bythe interruption of the blood supply to the brain, usually because a blood vessel bursts or is blocked by a clot. This cuts off the supply of oxygen and nutrients, causing damage to the brain tissue. The most common symptom of a stroke is sudden weakness or numbness of the face, arm or leg, most often on one side of the body. Other symptoms include: confusion, difficulty speaking or understandingspeech; difficulty seeing with one or both eyes; difficulty walking, dizziness,loss of balance or coordination; severe headache with no known cause; fainting or unconsciousness. The effects of a stroke depend on which part of the brain isinjured and how severely it is affected. A very severe stroke can cause sudden death. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study provided the first global estimate on the burden of 135 diseases, and cerebrovascular diseases ranked as thesecond leading cause of death after ischemic heart disease. During the past decade the quantity of especially routine mortality data has increased, and is nowcovering approximately one-third of the world’s population. The increase in dataavailability provides the possibility for updating the estimated global burdenof stroke. Data on causes of death from the 1990s have shown that cerebrovascular diseases remain a leading cause of death. In 2001 it was estimated that cerebrovascular diseases (stroke) accounted for 5.5 million deaths world wide, equivalent to 9.6 % of all deaths Two-thirds of these deaths occurred in people livingin developing countries and 40% of the subjects were aged less than 70 years. Additionally, cerebrovascular disease is the leading cause of disability in adultsand each year millions of stroke survivors has to adapt to a life with restrictions in activities of daily living as a consequence of cerebrovascular disease.Many surviving stroke patients will often depend on other people’s continuous support to survive.II. OBJECTIVES GENERAL OBJECTIVES
 
1. To be able to discuss the effect, signs and symptoms of the disease,Cerebrovascular Disease.2. How to diagnose, prevent and the treatment should the nurse give forthe patient full recovery. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES1. To be able to discuss patients background ( lifestyle, history of thepast illness, family health history) to show how may this effect on the occurrence of this disease. 2. To be able to discuss the anatomy and the physiology of the heart, for you to be able to understand where the infection takes place.3. To be able to discuss the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseasesand also to know and understand the etiology of the disease. 4. To be able to discuss the patient activities of daily living. To know if there’s a factor that triggers the disease 5. To be able to discuss, nursing care plan for our patient.6. To be able to discuss, the medication / drugs that the patient taken and thediagnostic test that being perform for the patient. 7. Lastly, to be able to discuss our discharge plan for fully recovery of our patient.III. PATIENT’S PROFILEIV. PHYSICAL ASSESSMENT GENERAL SURVEY Mr. X was lying semi-fowler’s on bed, conscious, coherent, afebrile with monitoring devices. A. VITAL SIGNS Date Shift TTemp BP RR PR Intak Outpu
 
ime 07/18/0 9 7am1pm 36.8 210/1 00 58 20etB. HEAD Pink papillary conjunctiva, no nuchal rigidity and no carotid bruit. C.NEUROLOGIC STATUS -Oriented to time, person and place. CRANIAL NERVES ASSESSMENTCN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN I- can smell II- (2-3) ERTL III, IV, VI- EDM, intact V-(+) corneal reflex VII- no facial asymmetry IX- (+) gag reflex XI- can shrug shoulder XII- tongue at midlineD. PULMONARY SYSTEM -Respiratory rate was 58 cpm -SCE, no vesicular breath sounds. -AP, Apical beat at the 6th ICS anterior axillary line normal sounds. E. GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM Flabby, NaBS, no abdominal bruit, (-) edema,(-) cyanosis. F.MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM The patient manifested good posture and moved voluntarily; he had symmetrical musculature on both sides of the body. Weakness was noted.G. GENITO- URINARY SYSTEM Patient voided 60 – 350 cc per shift as weighed and yellow in color.

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