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Electronics Course - Transistors and Semiconductors

Electronics Course - Transistors and Semiconductors

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Published by: Harsha on Feb 18, 2010
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ORDNANCE MISSILE AND MUNITIONS MMS SUBCOURSE NUMBER 701, TRANSISTORS AND SEMICONDUCTORS(28 Credit Hours)INTRODUCTION
The announcement of the first transistor in June 1948 brought about manyrevolutionary changes in the field of electronics. Compared to the thenconventional vacuum tube, the transistor has a much higher operating efficiencyand is much smaller in size. Being a solid-state device, neither a specialenvelope to house a vacuum nor special heating elements to provide electrons isrequired. The latter fact alone represents a considerable saving in powersince, in most standard receiving tubes, as much or more power is expended inheating the filament as in drawing current through the tubes.Although the transistor serves mainly as a replacement for the vacuumtube, it is not enough to think of it in such limited terms. Because it is asolid-state semiconductor, it has patterns of electron flow quite differentfrom the conventional electron tube. It is important for anyone associatedwith the field of electronics to understand these patterns and know the generaladvantages and limitations of the transistor.Semiconductor devices, as the transistor, are finding widespreadapplication in such modern missile systems as the Lance, Pershing, TOW, andHawk. Since all of these systems require the use of amplifiers, oscillators,detectors, multivibrators, and countless other circuits, it is important todevelop a basic knowledge of the application of the transistor andsemiconductor in these types of circuits.This subcourse consists of the theory and application of transistors andsemiconductors in power supplies, amplifiers, oscillators, timing circuits andmodulation and demodulation circuits. Special purpose semiconductor devicesare also covered in this subcourse.The skills and knowledge taught in this subcourse are common to allmissile repairer tasks.This subcourse consists of nine lessons and examination as follows:Lesson 1 Introduction to Transistors and 1 hourSemiconductorsLesson 2 Theory of Transistors and 3 hoursSemiconductorsLesson 3 Semiconductor Diode Rectifiers and 3 hoursTransistor Amplifier FundamentalsLesson 4 Bias Stabilization 2 hoursLesson 5 Transistor Amplifiers 3 hoursLesson 6 Oscillators and Multivibrators 4 hoursLesson 7 Triggered and Gating Circuits 4 hoursLesson 8 Modulation and Demodulation 2 hoursLesson 9 Special Purpose Semiconductor 3 hoursDevicesExamination 3 hoursiii
 
 PREFACE
The Army Institute for Professional Development (AIPD) administers theconsolidated Army Correspondence Course Program (ACCP), which provides high-quality, economical training to its users. The AIPD is accredited by the AccreditingCommission of the Distance Education and Training Council (DETC), the nationallyrecognized accrediting agency for correspondence institutions.Accreditation is a process that gives public recognition to educational institutions,which meet published standards of quality. The DETC has developed a thorough andcareful evaluation system to assure that institutions meet standards of academic andadministrative excellence before it awards accreditation.The many TRADOC service schools and DOD agencies that produce the ACCPmaterials administered by the AIPD develop them to the DETC standards.The AIPD is also a charter member of the Interservice Correspondence Exchange(ICE). The ICE brings together representatives from the Army, Navy, Air Force, MarineCorps, and Coast Guard to meet and share ideas on improving distance education.
 
LESSON 1. INTRODUCTION TO TRANSISTORS AND SEMICONDUCTORS MMS Subcourse Number 701...............Transistors and SemiconductorsLesson Objective.......................To introduce the student to transistorsand semiconductors to include history,functions and construction.Credit Hours...........................OneTEXT1. GENERAL.
Fundamentally, a semiconductor device is a valve that controlsthe flow of current carriers (electrical charges in motion) through the crystalmaterial of which it is made. A transistor's ability to control currentcarriers makes it potentially the most useful single element in modernelectronic equipment. Transistors are used in military radio, sound, radar,telephone, missile circuitry and computers.
2. HISTORY.a. Crystal Rectifier.
The first use of a crystal semiconductor (figure1-1) as a rectifier (detector) was in the early days of radio. A crystal wasclamped in a small cup or receptacle and a flexible wire (cat-whisker) madelight contact with the crystal. The receiver was tuned by operating theadjusting arm until the cat-whisker was positioned on a spot of the crystal thatresulted in a sound in the headset. Tuning the variable capacitor providedmaximum signal in the headset; frequent adjustment of the contact point wasrequired.
Figure 1-1. Radio receiver using crystal rectifier.
 b. Point Contact Diode.
Point contact diodes (figure 1-2) (germaniumrectifiers) were used during World War II to replace electron tubes in radar andother high frequency equipment. The point contact diode has a very low shuntcapacitance and does not require heater power. These properties are definiteadvantages over the electron tube diode. The point contact diode is identicalwith the crystal rectifier in that it includes a semiconductor, a metal base,and a metallic point contact. The connections to the point contact diode are anexternal lead welded to the metallic point contact, and an external lead weldedto the metal base.
MMS 701, 1-P1

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