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Statistical Formula

# Statistical Formula

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03/21/2013

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Statistical formula
can be defined as the group of statistical symbols used to make astatistical statement. This webpage will discuss popular statistical formulas and what theystand for.The term population mean, which is the parameter of a given population, is represented by the statistical formulaμ = ( Σ X
i
) / NIn this statistical formula, the symbol‘μ’represents the population mean. The symbol ‘Σ X
i
’ represents the overall sum of allvariables present in the population (say, in this case) X
1
X
2
X
3
and so on. The symbol ‘N’in the statistical formula represents the overall size of the population.The parameter called population standard deviation is represented by the statisticalformulaσ = sqrt[ Σ ( X
i
- μ )
2
/ N ]In this statistical formula, the symbol ‘σ’ represents the population standard deviation.The term ‘sqrt’ used in this statistical formula denotes square root. The term ‘Σ ( X
i
– μ )
2
’ used in the statistical formula represents the sum of the squares of the deviation of thevariables from their population mean.The parameter called population variance is represented by the statistical formulaσ
2
= Σ ( X
i
– μ )
2
/ NIn this statistical formula, the symbol ‘σ
2’
represents the population variance.A subject called applied statistics is one branch of statistics that involves statisticalformulas for simplerandom sampling.The statistic called sample mean is used insimple random samplingand is represented bythe statistical formula, = ( Σ x
i
) / nIn this statistical formula, the symbol represents the sample mean. The symbol ‘Σ x
i
’ usedin this statistical formula represents the overall sum of variables present in the sample

(say, in this case) x
1
x
2
x
3
and so on. The symbol ‘n,’ which is divided by the overall sumin the statistical formula, represents the overallsize of the sample.The statistic called sample standard deviation, used in simple random sampling,is represented by the statistical formulas = sqrt [ Σ ( x
i
-)
2
/ ( n - 1 ) ]The term ‘Σ ( x
i
- )
2
’ used in the statistical formula represents the sum of the squares of the deviation of the variable from their sample mean.The statistic called variance of the sample proportion is represented by the statisticalformulas
p2
= pq / (n – 1)The symbol ‘s
p2
’ used in the statistical formula represents the variance of the sample proportion. The term ‘p’ in this statistical formula represents the proportion of the samplethat acquires a particular characteristic or an attribute. The term ‘q’ in the statisticalformula represents that proportion of samples that do not acquire that particular characteristic or attribute. The term ‘q’ also has a statistical formula, and it is q=(1-p).The statistic called pooled sample standard deviation is represented by the statisticalformulas
p
= sqrt [ (n
1
- 1) * s
12
+ (n
2
- 1) * s
22
] / (n
1
+ n
2
– 2) ]The term ‘s
p
’ in the statistical formula represents the pooled sample standard deviation.The term ‘n
1
’ in the statistical formula represents the size of the first sample, and the term‘n
2
’ in the statistical formula represents the size of the second sample that is being pooledwith the first sample. The term ‘s
12
’ in the statistical formula represents the variance of the first sample proportion, and ‘s
22
’ in the statistical formula represents the variance of the second sample proportion.
Appendix B - Commonly used statistical formulas
Mean (Average)

Variance (when you have measured all members of a population)Sample variance (when you are estimating variance from a sample of population) Standard deviation (when all members of a population are measured)Sample standard deviationStandard error (of the mean)Chi-square value
χ

2

BASIC STATISTICAL FORMULAS
(Note: Much of the following information is based on
Biometry
, second edition, by Robert R. Sokal and F.James Rohlf, 1981, W. H. Freeman and Co., and
Statistical Methods
, seventh edition, by George W.Snedecor and William C. Cochran, 1980, The Iowa State University Press.)The following is a very brief primer on statistics. The intention is to whet your appetite and provide somefamiliarity with basic statistics. Any number of texts exist that can explain these and other statisticalmethods in detail.

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