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ESP Design Parameters[0]

# ESP Design Parameters[0]

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04/29/2013

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3-1
Lesson 3
ESP Design Parameters and Their Effects on Collection Efficienc
Goal
To familiarize you with the variables used by vendors to optimally design ESP systems.
Objectives
At the end of this lesson, you will be able to do the following:1. Define the term
migration velocity
2. Explain the difference between the Deutsch-Anderson equation and the Matts-Ohnfeldt equa-tion for estimating collection efficiency3. Define the term
resistivity
4. List three ways to reduce high resistivity and two ways to combat low resistivity5. Explain how sectionalization and increasing corona power improves collection efficiency6. Define aspect ratio and specific collection area and describe their importance for achievingcollection efficiency7. Calculate the aspect ratio and specific collection area of an ESP given a set of design informa-tion
Introduction
Because of legislation such as the Clean Air Act and the 1977 and 1990 Clean Air Act Amend-ments, ESPs have been carefully designed to collect more than 99.5% of particles in the fluegas from many industries. ESPs efficiently collect particles of various sizes: large particles of 3 to 10
µ
m in diameter, and smaller particles of less than 1
µ
m in diameter.An ESP is designed for a particular industrial application. Building an ESP is a costlyendeavor, so a great deal of time and effort is expended during the design stage. Manufacturersuse various methods to design ESPs. They also consider a variety of operating parameters thataffect collection efficiency including resistivity, electrical sectionalization, specific collectionarea, aspect ratio, gas flow distribution, and corona power. This lesson focuses on these meth-ods and operating parameters.

Lesson 3
3-2
2.0-2/98
Design Methods
Manufacturers use mathematical equations to estimate collection efficiency or collection area.In addition, they may build a pilot-plant to determine the parameters necessary to build thefull-scale ESP. They may also use a mathematical model or computer program to test thedesign features and operating parameters in a simulation of the final design. Once the basis of the ESP design is completed, the vendor can design the unit using various individual parame-ters that are appropriate for each specific situation.
Using Estimates of Collection Efficiency
Collection efficiency
is the primary consideration of ESP design. The collection effi-ciency and/or the collection area of an ESP can be estimated using several equations.These equations give a theoretical estimate of the overall collection efficiency of the unitoperating under ideal conditions. Unfortunately, a number of operating parameters canadversely affect the collection efficiency of the precipitator. A discussion of collection-efficiency equations and operating parameters affecting collection-efficiency equationsfollows.
Particle-Migration Velocity
Before determining the collection area and the collection efficiency, the designer mustestimate or measure (if possible) the
particle-migration velocity
. This is the speed atwhich a particle, once charged, migrates toward the grounded collection electrode.Variables affecting particle velocity are particle size, the strength of the electric field,and the viscosity of the gas. How readily the charged particles move to the collectionelectrode is denoted by the symbol, w, called the particle-migration velocity, or
driftvelocity
. The migration-velocity parameter represents the collectability of the particlewithin the confines of a specific ESP. The migration velocity is expressed in Equation3-1.(3-1)Where: d
p
= diameter of the particle,
µ
mE
o
= strength of field in which particles are charged(represented by peak voltage), V/m (V/ft)E
p
= strength of field in which particles are collected(normally the field close to the collecting plates), V/m (V/ft)
µ
= gas viscosity, Pa
s (cp)
π
= 3.14As shown in Equation 3-1, migration velocity depends on the voltage strength of boththe charging and collection fields. Therefore, the precipitator must be designed usingthe maximum electric field voltage for maximum collection efficiency. The migrationvelocity also depends on particle size; larger particles are collected more easily thansmaller ones.
w =d E E
p o p
4
πµ

ESP Design Parameters and Their Effects on Collection Efficiency
2.0-2/98
3-3
Particle-migration velocity can also be determined by Equation 3-2.(3-2)Where: q = particle charge(s)E
p
= strength of field in which particles are collected, V/m (V/ft)
µ
= gas viscosity, Pa
s (cp)r = radius of the particle,
µ
m
π
= 3.14The particle-migration velocity can be calculated using either Equations 3-1 or 3-2,depending on the information available on the particle size and electric field strength.However, most ESPs are designed using a particle-migration velocity based on fieldexperience rather than theory. Typical particle migration velocity rates, such as thoselisted in Table 3-1, have been published by various ESP vendors.
Table 3-1. Typical effective particle-migrationvelocity rates for various applications
ApplicationMigration velocity(ft/sec) (cm/s)
Utility fly ashPulverized coal fly ashPulp and paper millsSulfuric acid mistCement (wet process)Cement (dry process)GypsumSmelterOpen-hearth furnaceBlast furnaceHot phosphorousFlash roasterMultiple-hearth roasterCatalyst dustCupola0.13-0.670.33-0.440.21-0.310.19-0.250.33-0.370.19-0.230.52-0.640.060.16-0.190.20-0.460.090.250.260.250.10-0.124.0-20.410.1-13.46.4-9.55.8-7.6210.1-11.36.4-7.015.8-19.51.84.9-5.86.1-14.02.77.67.97.63.0-3.7
Sources: Theodore and Buonicore 1976; U.S. EPA 1979.
w =qEr
p
6
πµ

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