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What is 4G

What is 4G

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Published by hi2sam007
4g..the future technology
4g..the future technology

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Published by: hi2sam007 on Feb 18, 2010
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01/16/2013

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What is 4G?
4G takes on a number of equally true definitions, depending on who you are talking to. In simplest terms,4G is the next generation of wireless networks that will replace 3G networks sometimes in future. Inanother context, 4G is simply an initiative by academic R&D labs to move beyond the limitations andproblems of 3G which is having trouble getting deployed and meeting its promised performance andthroughput. In reality, as of first half of 2002, 4G is a conceptual framework for or a discussion point toaddress future needs of a universal high speed wireless network that will interface with wireline backbonenetwork seamlessly. 4G is also represents the hope and ideas of a group of researchers in Motorola,Qualcomm, Nokia, Ericsson, Sun, HP, NTT DoCoMo and other infrastructure vendors who must respondto the needs of MMS, multimedia and video applications if 3G never materializes in its full glory.
Motivation for 4G Research Before 3G Has Not Been Deployed?
3G performance may not be sufficient to meet needs of future high-performance applications likemulti-media, full-motion video, wireless teleconferencing. We need a network technology thatextends 3G capacity by an order of magnitude.
There are multiple standards for 3G making it difficult to roam and interoperate across networks.we need global mobility and service portability
 
3G is based on primarily a wide-area concept. We need hybrid networks that utilize both wirelessLAN (hot spot) concept and cell or base-station wide area network design.
We need wider bandwidth
 
Researchers have come up with spectrally more efficient modulation schemes that can not beretrofitted into 3G infrastructure
 
We need all digital packet network that utilizes IP in its fullest form with converged voice and datacapability.
 
Comparing Key Parameters of 4G with 3G
 
3G (including 2.5G, sub3G)4G
Major RequirementDriving ArchitecturePredominantly voice driven -data was always add onConverged data and voiceover IPNetwork ArchitectureWide area cell-basedHybrid - Integration of WirelessLAN (WiFi, Bluetooth) andwide areaSpeeds384 Kbps to 2 Mbps20 to 100 Mbps in mobilemodeFrequency BandDependent on country or continent (1800-2400 MHz)Higher frequency bands (2-8GHz)Bandwidth5-20 MHz100 MHz (or more)Switching DesignBasisCircuit and PacketAll digital with packetized voiceAccess TechnologiesW-CDMA, 1xRTT, EdgeOFDM and MC-CDMA (MultiCarrier CDMA)Forward Error CorrectionConvolutional rate 1/2, 1/3Concatenated coding schemeComponent DesignOptimized antenna design,multi-band adaptersSmarter Antennas, softwaremultiband and widebandradiosIPA number of air link protocols,including IP 5.0All IP (IP6.0)
What is needed to Build 4G Networks of Future?
A number of spectrum allocation decisions, spectrum standardization decisions, spectrum availabilitydecisions, technology innovations, component development, signal processing and switchingenhancements and inter-vendor cooperation have to take place before the vision of 4G will materialize.We think that 3G experiences - good or bad, technological or business - will be useful in guiding the
 
industry in this effort. We are bringing to the attention of professionals in telecommunications industryfollowing issues and problems that must be analyzed and resolved:
Lower Price Points Only Slightly Higher than Alternatives
- The business visionaries shoulddo some economic modeling before they start 4G hype on the same lines as 3G hype. Theyshould understand that 4G data applications like streaming video must compete with very lowcost wireline applications. The users would pay only a delta premium (not a multiple) for mostwireless applications.
 
More Coordination Among Spectrum Regulators Around the World
- Spectrum regulationbodies must get involved in guiding the researchers by indicating which frequency band might beused for 4G. FCC in USA must cooperate more actively with International bodies like ITU andperhaps modify its hands-off policy in guiding the industry. When public interest, national securityinterest and economic interest (inter-industry a la TV versus Telecommunications) are at stake,leadership must come from regulators. At appropriate time, industry builds its own self-regulationmechanisms.
 
More Academic Research
: Universities must spend more effort in solving fundamentalproblems in radio communications (especially multiband and wideband radios, intelligentantennas and signal processing.
 
Standardization of wireless
networks in terms of modulation techniques, switching schemesand roaming is an absolute necessity for 4G.
 
A Voice-independent Business Justification Thinking
: Business development and technologyexecutives should not bias their business models by using voice channels as economicdeterminant for data applications. Voice has a built-in demand limit - data applications do not.
 
Integration Across Different Network Topologies
: Network architects must base their architecture on hybrid network concepts that integrates wireless wide area networks, wirelessLANS (IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11g, IEEE 802.15 and IEEE 802.16, Bluetoothwith fiber-based Internet backbone. Broadband wireless networks must be a part of thisintegrated network architecture.
 
Non-disruptive Implementation
: 4G must allow us to move from 3G to 4G.
 
Industry Initiatives
WWRF(Wireless World Research Forum)- consisting of Alcatel, Ericsson, Nokia and Siemenshave started a research forum for 4G
 
NTT DoCoMo has started conceptual (we mean paper) design of a 4G network.
For More Information
- Go to the following resources on this site and cached papers publishedelsewhere:
Do a keyword search on our website using 4G Wireless as keywords. You will find more than 10references.
 
A technical paper published in Communications Systems Design Magazine (a CMP publication)during July 2001 - Fundamental Changes Required in Modulation and Signal Processing for 4G 
Wireless Platforms for the Future: Integrating B-to-C Data Transmission & 4G – Where will it takeus?
 
by James A. Watson-- Manager, Applications Engineering, Xilinx, Inc. (7/1/01 -- Issue 40)  jim.watson@xilinx.com
 
Related Resources:
Fundamental Changes Required in Modulation and Signal Processing for 4G
 
(Published in Communications Systems Design Magazine - a CMP publication during July 2001)While 3G hasn't quite arrived, designers are already thinking about 4G technology. With it comeschallenging RF and baseband design headaches.Cellular service providers are slowly beginning to deploy third-generation (3G) cellular services. Asaccess technology increases, voice, video, multimedia, and broadband data services are becomingintegrated into the same network. The hope once envisioned for 3G as a true broadband service has allbut dwindled away. It is apparent that 3G systems, while maintaining the possible 2-Mbps data rate in thestandard, will realistically achieve 384-kbps rates. To achieve the goals of true broadband cellulaservice, the systems have to make the leap to a fourth-generation (4G) network.This is not merely a numbers game. 4G is intended to provide high speed, high capacity, low cost per bit,IP based services.The goal is to have data rates up to 20 Mbps, even when used in such scenarios as a vehicle traveling200 kilometers per hour. New design techniques, however, are needed to make this happen, in terms of achieving 4G performance at a desired target of one-tenth the cost of 3G.The move to 4G is complicated by attempts to standardize on a single 3G protocol. Without a singlestandard on which to build, designers face significant additional challenges.
compares some of the key parameters of 3G and 4G (4G does not have any solid specification as of yet, so the parametersrely on general proposals). It is clear that some standardization is in order.
TABLE 1: Key Parameters of 3g and 4 G Systems
 3G 4GFrequency band 1.8 - 2.5 GHz 2 - 8 GHzBandwidth 5 - 20 MHz 5 - 20 MHzData rate Up to 2 Mbps (384 kbps deployed) Up to 20 MbpsAccess W-CDMA MC-CDMA or OFDM (TDMA)Forward error correction Convolutional rate 1/2, 1/3 Concatenated coding schemeSwitching Circuit/packet PacketMobile top speeds 200 km/h 200 km/h
Multicarrier modulation
 To achieve a 4G standard, a new approach is needed to avoid the divisiveness we've seen in the 3Grealm. One promising underlying technology to accomplish this is multicarrier modulation (MCM), aderivative of frequency-division multiplexing. MCM is not a new technology; forms of multicarrier systemsare currently used in DSL modems, and digital audio/video broadcast (DAB/DVB). MCM is a basebandprocess that uses parallel equal bandwidth subchannels to transmit information. Normally implementedwith Fast Fourier transform (FFT) techniques, MCM's advantages include better performance in theintersymbol interference (ISI) environment, and avoidance of single-frequency interferers. However,MCM increases the peak-to-average ratio (PAVR) of the signal, and to overcome ISI a cyclic extension or guard band must be added to the data.
, describes peak to average adjustment - the difference of the PAVR between MCM and asingle carrier system is a function of the number of subcarriers (N) as:
(1)
 Any increase in PAVR requires an increase in the linearity of the system to reduce distortion. Proposedapproaches to reduce PAVR have consequences, however. One such technique is clipping the signal;this results in more non-linearity. Linearization techniques can be used, but they increase the cost of thesystem, and amplifier backoff may still be required.

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