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Chemistry Notes

Chemistry Notes

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Published by Abhijit Pathak
Table of Contents

Matter and Chemical Bonding _____________________________ 3
Structure of matter _____________________________________________________ 3 Atom _______________________________________________________________ 3 Element _____________________________________________________________ 3 Compound ___________________________________________________________ 3 Group (columns) ______________________________________________________ 3 Period (rows)_____________________________________________
Table of Contents

Matter and Chemical Bonding _____________________________ 3
Structure of matter _____________________________________________________ 3 Atom _______________________________________________________________ 3 Element _____________________________________________________________ 3 Compound ___________________________________________________________ 3 Group (columns) ______________________________________________________ 3 Period (rows)_____________________________________________

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Published by: Abhijit Pathak on Feb 18, 2010
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02/01/2013

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1
Table of Contents
Matter and Chemical Bonding_____________________________3
Structure of matter_____________________________________________________ 3

Atom_______________________________________________________________ 3 Element_____________________________________________________________ 3 Compound___________________________________________________________ 3 Group (columns)______________________________________________________ 3 Period (rows)_________________________________________________________ 3 Drawing structures____________________________________________________ 3 Molecule____________________________________________________________ 3 BOFINCH___________________________________________________________ 3

Periodic Law__________________________________________________________ 4

Atomic size__________________________________________________________ 4 Ionization energy_____________________________________________________ 4 Electron Affinity______________________________________________________ 4 Electronegativity______________________________________________________ 4 Electropositivity______________________________________________________ 4

Octet rule_____________________________________________________________ 4

Cations_____________________________________________________________ 4 Anions______________________________________________________________ 4 Isotopes_____________________________________________________________ 4

Bonds________________________________________________________________ 5

Ionic bonding________________________________________________________ 5 Covalent bonding_____________________________________________________ 5 Polarity of molecules__________________________________________________ 5

Reactions_____________________________________________________________ 5
Metals and alloys_____________________________________________________ 5
Metal reactivity series__________________________________________________ 6
Quantities in Chemical Reactions________________________7
Basic Concepts_________________________________________________________ 7

Mole_______________________________________________________________ 7 Avogadro\u00b6s Number___________________________________________________ 7 Molar mass__________________________________________________________ 7 Law of definite proportions_____________________________________________ 7 Stoichiometry________________________________________________________ 7 Percentage yield______________________________________________________ 7 Empirical and Molecular formulas________________________________________ 7 Molar volume________________________________________________________ 7 Limiting reactant______________________________________________________ 7 General Problem______________________________________________________ 8 Empirical Formula Problem_____________________________________________ 8 Molecular Formula Problem_____________________________________________ 8

2
Limiting and Excess Reactant Problem____________________________________ 9
Formulas_____________________________________________________________ 9
Solution and Solubility______________________________________10
General terms________________________________________________________ 10

Water as a solvent____________________________________________________ 10 Concentration of a solution_____________________________________________ 10 Solute_____________________________________________________________ 10 Polar Solvent________________________________________________________ 10 Solution____________________________________________________________ 10

Acids and Bases_______________________________________________________ 10
Formulas____________________________________________________________ 11
Gases and Atmospheric Chemistry_____________________12
Standard conditions___________________________________________________ 12
Laws andFormulas____________________________________________________ 12

Boyle\u00b6s Law________________________________________________________ 12 Charles\u00b6 Law________________________________________________________ 12 Gay-Lussac\u00b6s Law___________________________________________________ 12 Combined gas Law___________________________________________________ 12 Dalton\u00b6s law of partial pressure_________________________________________ 12 Ideal Gas Law_______________________________________________________ 13

Hydrocarbons and Energy_________________________________14

Types of alkanes_____________________________________________________ 14 Types of alkenes_____________________________________________________ 14 Type of alkynes______________________________________________________ 15 Naming hydrocarbons_________________________________________________ 15 Naming branches____________________________________________________ 15 Isomers____________________________________________________________ 16 Cyclos_____________________________________________________________ 16 Combustion_________________________________________________________ 16 Endothermic and Exothermic reactions___________________________________ 16

Types of Calorimeters__________________________________________________ 17

Calorimeter_________________________________________________________ 17 Bomb calorimeter____________________________________________________ 17 Enthalpy___________________________________________________________ 17 Calorimeter Problem__________________________________________________ 17

3
Matter and Chemical Bonding
Structure of matter
Atom
Smallest particle of an element
Element
Composed of only one type of atom
Compound
Mixture of two ormore elements (NaCl)
Group (columns)
Elements in a group share similar chemical and physical properties
Period (rows)
Elements in a period have the same number of energy shell
Drawing structures
Bohr Diagram
Lewis Diagram
Lewis Diagram
Molecule
Combination of twomore atoms of the same element
BOFINCHThe saying
B
O
F
I
N
C
H
Themolecules
Br2
O2
F2
I2
N2
Cl2
H2
State
Liquid Gas GasSolid Gas Gas Gas
A(mass number, the number of protons and neutrons [mass number - electrons])
E(the element)
Z(atomic number, the number of protons)
H2S

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