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10-An - Swimming Pool Dehumidifier Sizing

10-An - Swimming Pool Dehumidifier Sizing

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Published by: alzyoud on Feb 18, 2010
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Swimming Pool Load Calculations 
Application Note 10 
This application note highlights the source of moisture loads in poolroom enclosures and its potential harmful effects if left uncontrolled.
Indoor pools have three main sources of moisture:
1. Evaporation from pool water surfaces2. Outdoor ventilation air3. People
The vapor pressure difference between pool water and the air causescontinuous evaporation. The vapor pressure of both water and air willchange based upon each one’s temperature and the differences intheir temperatures. The evaporation rate increases the higher thewater temperature is in relationship to the air temperature. The activitylevel at the water surface will also either increase or decreasethe evaporation rate. Activity factors as defined by the ASHRAEApplications Handbook are shown in Table 2 of this bulletin.During the summer months, outdoor ventilation air that is beingintroduced into the space to meet local code requirements may alsobe contributing to the moisture load of the space depending on theclimate location.The presence of spectators also adds to the moisture load of thespace. This load is typically minimal in residential pools but can befairly substantial when bleacher spectator areas are present.
Air is a gas. Like most gases, it expands in volume when heated andcontracts in volume when cooled. This expansion or contraction thatoccurs with changing temperatures increases or decreases the per-centage of moisture that the air can hold. In other words, as airexpands, its ability to hold moisture increases. For a given moisturecontent, the percentage of moisture to air volume (relative humidity)is reduced when air is heated.
Condensation is one of the major enemies to an indoor pool environment.When condensation develops on surfaces, it can damage the materialit forms on and also provides food for fungi and bacteria to grow.Visible condensation will appear when the surface temperature isbelow the indoor dew point of the space. (See Figure 1.) In mostpool environments, this dew point is in the range of 58°F to 66°F.The surface temperature can be calculated using the formula:
Ts = Ti – (K x (1/R) x (Ti – To))Ts = Surface TemperatureTi = Indoor TemperatureK = Constant of 0.68 for Vertical SurfaceR = R Value of Structural PanelTo = Outdoor Temperature
Since windows are the major contributor to condensation in thisenvironment, we will only look at this building component. However,the same process can be used for any building component. Windowstypically do not have an R value but are rated with U values.The Uvalue is the reciprocal of the R value, R = 1/U.The U values published for windows are for the entire windowassembly and do not reflect the U value for each component of thewindow. For this reason we recommend that you add 5°F to the actualcalculated surface temperature and use this value for your dew point.This would mean that all surfaces in an indoor pool environmentshould be kept above 63°F to 71°F to prevent visible condensation.If you’re more comfortable referencing percent relative humidity,Graph’s 1, 2 and 3 show what percent relative humidity that surfacecondensation will appear for different U values at indoor spacetemperatures of 76°F, 82°F and 8F with outdoor temperatures of25°F, F, and -25°F.
Graph 1 - % RH for Various U Values at 25°F OA Graph 2 - % RH for Various U Values at F OA Graph 3 - % RH for Various U Values at -25°F OA
25 Degree Outside Temperature
76° F82° F86° F
0.7 UValue0.6 UValue0.5 UValue0.4 UValue0.3 UValue75706560555045403530
   %    R   H   C  o  n   d  e  n  s  a   t   i  o  n   W   i   l   l   F  o  r  m
Window U Values
-25 Degree Outside Temperature
76° F82° F86° F
0.7 UValue0.6 UValue0.5 UValue0.4 UValue0.3 UValue55504540353025201510
   %    R   H   C  o  n   d  e  n  s  a   t   i  o  n   W   i   l   l   F  o  r  m
Window U Values
0 Degree Outside Temperature
76° F82° F86° F
0.7 UValue0.6 UValue0.5 UValue0.4 UValue0.3 UValue65605550454035302520
   %    R   H   C  o  n   d  e  n  s  a   t   i  o  n   W   i   l   l   F  o  r  m
Window U Values
The American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air ConditioningEngineers (ASHRAE) recommends that you maintain between 50%and 60% relative humidity in an indoor pool environment. Relativehumidity above 60% will be uncomfortable to the occupants of thespace, promotes the growth of certain fungi and bacteria and makesit more difficult to prevent visible condensation. A relative humiditybelow 50% will cause evaporative cooling on swimmers’ skin as theyexit the water, giving them a chilling effect. Lower humidity levelswill also cause more water evaporation, requiring more make-upwater and more chemical usage, therefore requiring larger equipmentand an increase in operating costs.
Several different techniques can be used to reduce humidity in anindoor pool environment. One of the oldest and most common prac-tices in years past was to use a make-up air / exhaust method. Warmmoist air is exhausted to the outdoors and new outdoor air is intro-duced into the building. (See Figure 2.) During the winter months,this air needs to be heated to the room temperature before enteringthe space. A high operating cost is associated with this process.During the spring, summer and fall in certain parts of the country, theoutdoor air actually may have more moisture in it than the indoorenvironment. This will cause the indoor humidity to rise and poten-tially cause building damage.In some parts of the country, the outdoor air may be dryer than theindoor environment. At first glance, it appears that this solves allhumidity problems. As long as the indoor humidity is below 60%RH, there shouldn’t be a problem. However, considering today’s highenergy costs, we also must add operating costs into the equation. Ifwe take a 75 foot by 25 foot pool that has an average depth of 6 feet,we find that this contains 84,000 gallons of water. Let’s assume thatthe space is maintained using outdoor air and we are in a dry climate,say constantly below 30% relative humidity.
Table 1 provides ASHRAE’s recommended design temperatures forindoor pools. The table indicates a maximum of 90°F air temperature(Elderly Swimmers). While not shown in the table, ASHRAE alsosuggests that the air temperature should not exceed 86°F whichwould be above the comfort threshold. Also, most refrigeration circuitsare only designed for a maximum of 90°F.
Figure 1 - Proper Dew Point of Pool Room Surfaces Figure 2 - Make-Up Air / Exhaust Method 
The most effective method of maintaining appropriate relative humiditylevels and achieving these types of savings is to use a refrigeration-based dehumidification system. (See Figure 3.)
Figure 3 - Refrigeration-Based Dehumidification System 
Warm Moist  Air Exhausted 
This pool is evaporating 85.3 pounds of moisture per hour or 10.3gallons per hour. This means in 340 days the pool is empty. If wemaintain 50% relative humidity in the space, the evaporation ratedecreases to 52 lbs/hr or 6.24 gallons per hour. In the same 340days, we have saved the cost of over 50,000 gallons of make-upwater. Also associated with this savings is the energy to reheat thiswater and the chemical costs to treat it. We have reduced the make-up water and chemical costs by about 40%.
Swimming Pool Load Calculations 
Discussion of the evaporation formula is beyond the scope of thisapplication note. Desert Aire uses the latest information from theASHRAE Applications Handbook. ASHRAE’s formula uses the vapordifferential method of determining the evaporation rate from thewater surface. This formula is used to develop the factors listed inTable 1. The values listed in Table 3 are based on 25 FPM of airmovement across the surface of the water. Variations of this formulaare available to account for an increase in air movement over thewater surface.All values in Table 3 are based on an activity factor of one (1) and arefor the occupied times of operation. Table 2 lists different activityfactors that can be applied to your end results based on the type ofpool you are designing.Please note that all unoccupied hours of operation should apply theactivity factor of 0.5 to determine the evaporation rate.
The amount of ventilation air required is generally accepted to be theamount as recommended by ASHRAE Standard 62.1. Most codesare based on this method but always check with your local codeauthority for the proper method of calculating this amount. The 2007version of this standard recommends that this be based on thesquare footage of water surface at a rate of 0.48 cfm per square foot,while the square footage of the deck / floor area be calculated atsome other rate, generally at 0.06 cfm per square foot. If the spaceincludes a spectator area, which means a place where people can sitand watch, than you must also include 7.5 cfm per person plus 0.06cfm per square foot of bleacher area.This standard also suggests that when calculating the moisture of theventilation air being introduced into the space that you use theASHRAE Dehumidification Weather Data. Desert Aire recommendsusing the 1% weather conditions. A selection of cities and valuesacross the United States and Canada are listed in Table 5.
Table 2 - Activities Factor Table from ASHRAE Applications Handbook 2007 Table 1 - ASHRAE Recommended Air and Water Design Temperatures 
Type of Pool
Baseline (Unoccupied Pool)Residential PoolCondominiumTherapyHotelPublic, School, YMCAWhirlpool, SpasWavepools, Water Slides
Type of Facility
RecreationalTherapeuticCompetitionDivingElderly SwimmersHotelWhirlpool / Spa
Air Temperature
75°F to 85°F80°F to 85°F78°F to 85°F80°F to 85°F84°F to 90°F82°F to 85°F80°F to 85°F
Water Temperature
75°F to 8F85°F to 9F76°F to 8F80°F to 9F85°F to 9F92°F to 8F97°F to 104°F
Activity Factor to 1.51.5 or more
 Air Temperature°F74°F
50% RH60% RH
0.0480.03950.05410.04570.06070.05220.06760.05920.07490.06650.08270.07420.09090.08240.09950.09110.10860.10020.11830.10980.12840.120.13920.13070.15050.1420.16240.15390.1749 0.1665
50% RH 60%RH
0.04510.0360.05120.04220.05780.04880.06470.05570.0720.0630.07980.07070.08790.07890.09660.08760.10570.09670.11540.10630.12550.11650.13620.12720.14750.13850.15950.15040.172 0.163
50% RH60% RH
0.0420.03230.0481 0.03850.05470.0450.06160.0520.06890.05930.07670.0670.08480.07520.09430.08390.10260.0930.11230.10230.12240.11280.13320.12350.14450.13480.15640.14670.1689 0.1593
50% RH60% RH
0.03870.02840.0449 0.03460.05140.04110.05830.0480.06560.05540.07340.06310.08160.07130.09020.07990.09940.0910.1090.09870.11920.10890.12990.11960.14120.13090.15310.14280.1656 0.1553
50% RH60% RH
0.03520.02430.04140.03040.04790.0370.05490.04390.06220.05120.06990.0590.07810.06710.08680.07580.09590.08490.10550.09460.11570.10470.12640.11550.13770.12680.14960.13870.1622 0.1512
50% RH60% RH
0.03160.01990.03770.0260.04430.03260.05120.03950.05850.04680.06630.05460.07450.06270.08310.07140.09220.08050.10190.09020.1120.10030.12280.11110.13410.12240.1460.13430.1585 0.1468
50% RH60% RH
0.02770.01520.03390.02140.04040.02790.04730.03480.05460.04220.06240.04990.07060.05810.07920.06670.08840.07590.0980.08550.10820.09570.11890.10640.13020.11770.14210.12960.1546 0.1421
50% RH60% RH
0.02360.01030.02980.01650.03630.0230.04320.02990.05060.03730.05830.0450.06650.05320.07510.06180.08430.0710.09390.08060.10410.09080.11480.10150.12610.11280.1380.12470.1505 0.1372
Table 3 - Evaporation Rates of Still Water at Sea Level (Using ASHRAE Fundamentals Method) 

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