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Published by Kunal Bansode

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Published by: Kunal Bansode on Feb 19, 2010
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Transport or transportation is the movement of peopleand goods from one location to another. Transport isperformed by modes, such as air, rail, road, water, cable,pipeline and space. The field can be divided intoinfrastructure, vehicles, and operations.Transport in India:Transport in the Republic of India
is an important part of thenation's economy. With a land area of 3,287,240 km
(1,269,210 sq mi), and an estimated population of 1,028,737,436,transport in India is both a necessity as well as a convenience.Since the economic liberalization of the 1990s, development of infrastructure within the country has progressed at a rapid pace,and today there is a wide variety of modes of transport by land,water and air. However, the relatively low GDP of India has meantthat access to these modes of transport has not been uniform.Only around 10% of households own a motorcycle (about102,873,744 people). Cars are owned by the wealthier few —around 0.7% of households owned one in 2007 (about 7,201,163people).Public transport still remains the primary mode of transport for most of the population, and India's public transportsystems are among the most heavily utilized in the world.
Traditional transports:
: In ancient times, people often covered long distances onfoot. For instance, Adi Sankaracharya traveled all over India.
Walking still constitutes an important mode of transport in urbanareas.
: Palanquins also known as
, were one of theluxurious methods used by the rich and noblemen for travelling. This was primarily used in the olden days to carry a deity or idolof a god, and many temples have sculptures of god being carriedin a
Bullock carts and horse carriages
: Bullock carts have beentraditionally used for transport, especially in rural India. Theadvent of the British saw drastic improvements in the horsecarriages which were used for transport since early days. Today,they are used in smaller towns and are referred as
. Victorias of Mumbai are still used for tourist purposes,but horse carriages are now rarely found in India.
: Bicycles are a common mode of travel in much of India.More people can now afford to own a cycle than ever before. In2005, more than 40% of Indian households owned a bicycle, withownership rates ranging from around 30% to 70% at the statelevel. Along with walking, cycling accounts for 50 to 75 % of thecommuter trips for those in the informal sector in urban areas.
In India, the word "bike" generally refers to motorcycle, and "cycle" refers to bicycle.
Hand-pulled rickshaw
: This type of transport is still available in Kolkata wherein a personpulls the rickshaw by hand. The Government of West Bengalproposed a ban on these rickshaws in 2005 describing them as"inhuman". Though a bill aiming to address this issue, termed as'Calcutta Hackney Carriage Bill', was passed by the West BengalAssembly in 2006, it has not been implemented yet. TheGovernment of West Bengal is working on an amendment of thisbill to avoid the loopholes that got exposed when the Hand-pulledRickshaw Owner's Association filed a petition against the bill.
Cycle rickshaw
: Cycle rickshaws were introduced into India in the1940s. They are bigger than a tricycle where two people sit on anelevated seat at the back and a person pedals from the front. Inthe late 2000s, they were banned in several cities for causingtraffic congestion. However, environmentalists have supportedthe retention of cycle rickshaws as a non-polluting andinexpensive mode of transport.
: The advent of the British saw trams being introduced in manycities including Mumbai and Kolkata. They are still in use inKolkata and provide an emission-free means of transport.
 Auto Rickshaws
: An auto rickshaw is a three wheeler vehicle forhire that has no doors and is generally characterized by a smallcabin for the driver in the front and a seat for passengers in therear.[45] Generally it is painted in yellow, green or black colourand has a black, yellow or green canopy on the top, but designsvary considerably from place to place.
Public transport:
:Rail services in India, first introduced in 1853, are provided by thestate-run Indian Railways, under the supervision of the Ministry of Railways. Indian Railways provides an important mode of transport in India, transporting over 18 million passengers andmore than 2 million tonnes of freight daily across one of thelargest and busiest rail networks in the world.
Water and sea transport 
Maritime transportation in India is managed by the ShippingCorporation of India, a government-owned company that alsomanages offshore and other marine transport infrastructure in thecountry. It owns and operates about 35% of Indian tonnage andoperates in practically all areas of shipping business servicing

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