environment, one in which not only natural forces but the opponent is trying to cause anorganizational system to fail, drove the evolution of military organizational systems.Many aspects of these systems are adaptable to civilian activities.History's greatest generals may or may not have been outstanding strategists andtacticians but they were always outstanding
. Two of thegreatest commanders who ever lived, Alexander the Great and the Russian field marshalAlexander V. Suvorov (1729-1800), created or improved outstanding organizations.Alexander's father Philip II developed the Macedonian Army into a highly professional
fighting organization. Philip's innovations included drills, logistics for rapid movement,and equal discipline for officers and enlisted troops. Alexander maintained this system,and his personal behavior earned the commitment of his troops.
Frederick William I left his son, Frederick the Great, a superbly-trained army. Asthese soldiers suffered attrition through battle or retirement, Frederick's ability towin declined. Although Frederick was a skilled tactician and strategist, he was nota great organization-builder.Suvorov encouraged self-direction and innovation by enlisted soldiers in an era when
commanders relied on tight control: Taylorism before Frederick Winslow Taylor.Suvorov's leadership, like Alexander the Great's, promoted outstanding commitment,morale, and enthusiasm.
Intellectual Heritage of Clausewitz.org
Every thoughtful man has an idea of what ought to be; but what the world is waiting for is a social and economic blueprint. …We want artists in industrial relationships. We wantmasters in industrial method, both from the standpoint of the producer and the product.We want those who can mold the political, social, industrial, and moral mass into a soundand shapely whole.--Henry Ford,
(1922)Quoted in the Preface to Levinson, 2002,
Through the travail of the ages,
Midst the pomp and toil of war
Have I fought and strove and perished
Countless times upon this star.
In the forms of many peoples
In all panoplies of time
Have I seen the luring vision
Of the victory Maid, sublime.
I have known the call to battle