c) Attenuation depends on diameter of optical fiber (diameter of core mainly). For single/mono mode attenuation is minimum since lesser the traversed distance lesser the power loss.d) Attenuation definitely depends on distance. Distance between optical source andrepeater/detector.
Glass fiber (which has a low attenuation) is used for long-distancefiber optic cables; plastic fiber has a higher attenuation and henceshorter range.
How Attenuation can be minimized?
is the way by which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typicallythe electrons of an atom. Thus, the light energy is transformed to other forms of energyfor example, to heat. The absorption of light during wave propagation is often calledattenuation.
Types or Classification:
Absorption of light in optical fibers may be intrinsic or extrinsic.
Intrinsic absorption is caused by basic fiber-material properties. If an optical fiber were absolutely pure, with no imperfections or impurities, then all absorptionwould be intrinsic.
In fiber optics, silica (pure glass) fibers are used. Silica fibers areused because of their low intrinsic material absorption at thewavelengths of operation.In silica glass, the wavelengths of operation range from 700 nanometers (nm) to 1600nm.
Cause of Intrinsic Absorption:
Intrinsic absorption is due to material and electron absorption.
is a loss mechanism which results in the dissipation of someof the transmitted optical power into heat in the optical fiber.
An absolutely pure silicate glass has little intrinsic absorption dueto its basic material structure.
Intrinsic absorption in the ultraviolet region is caused by electronic absorption.