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Gcse Statistics Revision Notes

Gcse Statistics Revision Notes

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06/16/2014

 
STATISTICS 4040
GCSE Statistics Revision notes
Collecting data
Sample – 
This is when data is collected from part of the
population
. There are different methods for sampling 
 Random sampling, Stratified sampling, Systematic sampling, cluster sampling, Quota sampling Convenience sampling 
Random sample – 
Where each piece of data has an equal chance of being picked.
MethodsRandom number table – 
Tables of random numbers can be use.Here is an extract from a table of random numbers36015 37672 90153 67480 26237 10635 34269 01638Split the numbers into to digit numbers3601 53 76 72 90 15 36 74 80 26 23 71 06 35 34 26 90 16 38And then start from 36 and select numbers between 0 and 5036 01 15 36 26 Leave out any numbers above 50
Calculator
 – Use the RAN button on your calculator. For numbers from 0 to 100 type 
100 Shift RAN
Until you have enough numbers.
Numbers in a bag
 – List numbers from 1 to 100 and put them in a bag and select the appropriate number atrandom
Stratified sample – 
Where the data sampled is in proportion to the population. 
Example-
The table shows the number of students in a schoolYear Students7 1208 1009 11510 125Total 460A stratified sample of size 30 is to be taken. How many year 7’s will be picked?
Solution
Fraction of year 7 students in school is 120240120 x
30 =
7.82… Approx 8 year 7 students will be picked240
Other Sample techniquesConvenience sample – 
the first so many pieces of data in the list are sampled.(Quick but unlikely to be representative
Quota sample – 
The amount or quota of each group is given eg 100 woman were sampled
Systematic sampling
 – Data is chosen at regular intervals eg Every 10
th
Person.
Cluster sampling
– The population is divided into groups (cluster) and then a group is chosen at random.Khodabocus Aihjaaz Ahmad
 
STATISTICS 4040
Census – 
This is when all of the data in the population is taken. For example a census of the entire populationof the UK is taken every 10 years.
Advantage DisadvantageSample
Cheaper Not completely representativeLess time consuming Possibly biased
 
Less data to be analysed
Census
Unbiased Time consumingAccurate ExpensiveTakes account of Difficult to ensure wholeWhole population Whole population is surveyed
Types of Data-Secondary data – 
This is data that has been collected by someone else.
Advantage-
No need to collect. Ready to analyse
Disadvantage – 
Could be unreliable
-Primary data -
This is data collected by the person doing the analysis
Advantage -
Should be reliable
Disadvantage – 
Collecting is time consuming
Continuous Data – 
This is data that is on a continuous scale (Lengths, height, weights, measurements)
Discrete Data -
This data that consists of separate numbers. (Shoe sizes, number of people, money)
Quantitative data
 – This is data that has numerical values. (Time , heights, weights , number of people)
Qualitative data -
This is data that is not numerical (Colour, type , )
QuestionnairesOpen questions – 
Has no suggested answers and gives people chance to reply as they wish 
 Advantage – 
 Allows for a range of answers 
 Disadvantage – 
 Range of response too broad- hard to analyse
Closed questions – 
Gives a set of answer for the person to choose from 
 Advantage
 – Restricts response making it easy to analyse responses 
 Disadvantage – 
Will not necessarily cover all responses
Pilot survey (pre-test)
– Small scale replica of the survey to be carried out. Used to ensure that the method of Data collection/ questionnaire and data required is suitable for the bigger survey.
Leading question
 – Avoid questions that infer an opinion such as “Smoking is bad for you. Do you agree?”
Other sampling methods
 
See page 16 
QuestionnairesOpen questions – 
Has no suggested answers and gives people chance to reply as they wish
Closed questions – 
Gives a set of answer for the person to choose from
Pilot survey (pre-test)
– Small scale replica of the survey to be carried out. Used to ensure that the method of Data collection and data required is suitable for the bigger survey.
Leading question
 – Avoid questions that infer an opinion such as “Smoking is bad for you. Do you agree?”Khodabocus Aihjaaz Ahmad
 
STATISTICS 4040
Calculations
Means from frequency distributionsExampleMeans from grouped data
Find the mid-point of each group and then multiply by frequency. Sum and then divide by total frequencyExample
Standard DeviationVariance
is a measure of spread about the mean of a distribution of dataThe square root of the
variance
is the
standard deviation
 
Example 1Example 2 If the data is grouped ( The mean for this example was found at the top of this page)
Khodabocus Aihjaaz Ahmad

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