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Cours Mecanique Sols 1

Cours Mecanique Sols 1

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Published by: mehdigc on Feb 21, 2010
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03/05/2013

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
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 
 

 
 
Peut-on construire avec cette terre ?
On ne peut raisonnablement répondre aussitôt à cette question.Il est préférable d’adopter une approche jalonnée par des questions successives :
Que va-t-on construire ? Un barrage, une digue ? Une route , une piste ? Un mur de clôture ?Une maison de plein pied ou un bâtiment à étage ?
Où va-t-on construire ? En région sèche ou pluvieuse ?
Comment va-t-on construire ? Quelle technique ou savoir faire disponible ?Car les sols ont des utilisations multiples :
- Ils peuvent être utilisés comme matériau de construction
Exemple 
: Adobe, brique de terre cuite ou stabilisée, barrage et digue en terre, chaussée enterre…Il convient donc de choisir, compte tenu des zones d’emprunt et de la nature de l’ouvrage, le typede sol qui convient, de choisir le mode d’exécution et éventuellement de prévoir le contrôle del’exécution.
- Ils peuvent être support de fondations de bâtiment, d’ouvrage d’art et de remblai
 Il est ici question de choisir un type de fondation au sens large compte tenu des charges àsupporter, des propriétés mécaniques du sol d’appui, du niveau de la nappe phréatique, etc…..En particulier, on doit pouvoir prévoir l’amplitude des tassements et vérifier qu’ils sontcompatibles avec le bon fonctionnement de l’ouvrage.On comprend l’importance de la géotechnique qui a pour objet l’étude des comportements mécaniquesdu sol, et ce, indépendamment des conditions pratiques d’emploi.La reconnaissance des sols permettra à l’ingénieur ou au technicien de préciser l’utilisation possible ounon d’un sol pour un ouvrage déterminé.Pour atteindre l’objectif visé, ce cours est divisé en deux grandes parties :
la première partie sera consacrée à l’étude des propriétés physiques, hydrauliques etmécaniques des sols ainsi qu’au calcul des tassements,
la deuxième partie fera une large part au calcul des ouvrages courants.
A Noter :
 
1.
Les fondations profondes ne sont pas traitées dans ce cours.
 
2. De même les sols organiques ne sont pas abordés.
SOMMAIRE
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+.1.2=21
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01/1 !
!+..1/30701137 !
020241/2/.0  !
?"/.010/14021 -
&+.1.2=2@2430.//.0
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-<2=21.14021 
!"()*+,-$./-$. 
0B1402./=2/10/./ 
.990/(209.//.990/.22(20.2402./=2 !
.990/(209.//.990/.22(20.2402./=2 
0!"1! ,
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6(& ,
!(11+""  
!(0./0/9.00F"5$11F" 
!!$/2+""F" 
" ,.
 

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