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Prestress Losses in wire Strands for Prestressed Concrete

# Prestress Losses in wire Strands for Prestressed Concrete

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There are two methods that can be used to estimate losses in prestressed concrete: (a) lump sum approximations; and (b) refined estimations. One should keep in mind that all estimates for prestress loss are just that – ESTIMATIONS. As we get into the details of the “refined” estimations, be aware of all the assumed behavior that exists in the estimation.

Example Calculations provided.
There are two methods that can be used to estimate losses in prestressed concrete: (a) lump sum approximations; and (b) refined estimations. One should keep in mind that all estimates for prestress loss are just that – ESTIMATIONS. As we get into the details of the “refined” estimations, be aware of all the assumed behavior that exists in the estimation.

Example Calculations provided.

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04/03/2013

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1
PRESTRESS LOSSES

Prestressed Concrete – A Fundamental Approach, 3
rd
Edition
,Chapter 3.
SOURCES AND COMPUTATION OF LOSSES

There are essentially two types of prestress losses that can take place in prestressed concretemembers: __________________________________________ and ___________________  __________________________. These two types of losses can be described in the following.Immediate Losses:These losses depend upon the type of member: pretrensioned or post-tensioned. In a
pretensioned
member, an immediate loss is that due to ______________________________ of the member. Immediate losses in a
post-tensioned
member are those due to __________________ and ___________________________________. Post-tensionedmembers can also be subjected to elastic shortening losses when _______________________  ____________________ is used.Time-Dependent Losses:The losses that depend upon elapsed time after stressing are independent of the member type.These losses are: ______________________________________________  ______________________________________________  _______________________________.There are two methods that can be used to estimate losses in prestressed concrete: (a)
lump sumapproximations
; and (b)
refined estimations
. One should keep in mind that
all estimates for  prestress loss are just that – ESTIMATIONS
. As we get into the details of the “refined” estimations, be aware of all the
assumed
behavior that exists in the estimation. Prior to
ACI 318-83
, lump sumloss calculations were allowed. However, today’s
Code
deems lump sum estimates obsolete.

2
Prestress losses are most conveniently broken down into components. We will address losscalculations based upon the member type being considered. The prestress loss can be determinedusing the following “formulas” for
pretensioned members
:
( )( )( )
00
,before transfe,after transfe,initial prestress
pT pES pR t pR tr s pCR pS pi pJ pR tr pE
f f f t  f t t f  f f f t t
= + + + + =
The following can be used for
post-tensioned members
:
( )
at jackingat transfer ,after transfeinitial prestress
pT pF pE pA pR tr s pCR pS pi pJ pA p
f f  f  f t t f  f f f
= + + ∆+ + + =
The subscripts and times are defined below:
0
= time at jacking;
tr
= time at transfer of prestressing force;
s
= time at stabilization of losses (
i.e.
j
= jacking;
R
= relaxation;
ES
= elastic shortening
A
= anchorage;
F
= friction;
CR
= creep;
SH
= shrinkage.The
AASHTO-LRFD
Specifications allow lump-sum estimates for prestressing losses with the caveatthat the following conditions are met.1. Members that are post-tensioned must be non-segmental members with spans less than 160feet and concrete stressed an age of 10-30 days.2. Members that are pretensioned must be stressed at an age where the concrete strength is noless than 3,500-psi.3. Members must be made from normal weight concrete.4. Members cannot be steam-cured, nor moist-cured.5. The prestressing steel must be
normal
or low-relaxation.

3
6. There must be
average
exposure conditions at the site.If these conditions are met, there is a simple table (Table 1 shown below) that can be used for losscalculations. It should be noted that the table defined
PPR
as _____________________________  ______________, which is basically the ratio prestressed reinforcement to total reinforcement withinthe cross-section.
Table 1:
AASHTO Lump Sum Approximations.
ELASTIC SHORTENING
The loss due to elastic shortening is based upon mechanics of materials approaches. We should allappreciate that the strain lost due to elastic shortening deformations can be computed using,
ES  ES
L
ε
=
(1)Therefore, if we can compute the member deformation due to elastic shortening,
ES
, we candetermine the strain lost resulting from elastic shortening. Losses due to elastic shortening aredifferent when pretensioned and post-tensioned members are considered.Pretensioned Members:When the member is pretensioned, the computation of loss is straight-forward,
i s i pES s ES csc c c
PE n f E n A E A
ε
= = = =
(2)