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Motoare cu aburi

Motoare cu aburi

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Published by svetlana
Energia aburilor inca mai asigura o mare parte din energia folosita in prezent. Chiar ~i cele mai avansate reactoare nucleare sunt doar simple surse de caldura care transforma apa in aburi pentru a act;iona turbine legate la generat()are de electricitate.
p rima ma~ina cu aburi a fost inventata 1n

O La ma~ina cu aburi a lui Newcomen, din aproximativ 1 710, aburii dintr-un fierbator (a) treceau in cilindru (c) ~i impingeau in sus pistonul. Un du~ de apa rece racea apoi cilindrul pentru a condens
Energia aburilor inca mai asigura o mare parte din energia folosita in prezent. Chiar ~i cele mai avansate reactoare nucleare sunt doar simple surse de caldura care transforma apa in aburi pentru a act;iona turbine legate la generat()are de electricitate.
p rima ma~ina cu aburi a fost inventata 1n

O La ma~ina cu aburi a lui Newcomen, din aproximativ 1 710, aburii dintr-un fierbator (a) treceau in cilindru (c) ~i impingeau in sus pistonul. Un du~ de apa rece racea apoi cilindrul pentru a condens

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Published by: svetlana on Feb 22, 2010
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O
L a
m a ~ in a
c u
a b u ri
a
lu i
N ew com en,
d in
a p ro x im a tiv
1 710,
a b u rii
d in tr-u n
fie rb a to r
(a )
tre c e a u
in
c ilin d r u
(c )
~ i im p in g e a u
in
s u s
p is to n u l.
U n
d u ~
d e
a p a
re c e
ra c e a
a p o i
c ilin -
d ru l
p e n tru
a condensa
a b u r ii,
ia r
p re s iu n e a
a e ru lu i
im p in g e a
p is to n u l
in
jo s .
E n e rg ia
a b u r ilo r
in c a m a i
a s ig u ra
o m a re p a rte
d in e n e r-
g ia fo lo s ita
in p re z e n t.
C h ia r
~ i
c e le m a i a v a n s a te re a c to a re
n u c le a re
s u n t d o a r s im p le
s u rs e d e c a ld u ra
c a re tra n s -
fo rm a
a p a in a b u ri p e n tru
a
a c t;io n a tu rb in e
le g a te la g e n e -
ra t()a re
d e e le c tric ita te .
~
"
-
#
- - \\,
.
~ ~ ,
H e r o n d in A le x a n d r ia . O
s fe ra g o a la p e
d in a u n tru
e ra p iv o ta ta p e
d o u a
tu b u ri p rin

c a re tre c e a u a b u rii d in tr-u n rn ic fie rb a to r. A b u - rii u m p le a u s fe ra ~ i ie ~ e a u p rin te v i d is p u s e 1 n p a r t i o p u s e a l e a c e s t e i a . J e t u r i l e d e a b u r i c a r e ta ~ n e a u d e te rm in a u

s fe ra
s a
s e
ro te a s c a .
T o tu ~ i, in
c iu d a
fa p tu lu i
c a
e ra
o
in v e n tie
in te re s a n ta ,rn a ~ in a n u s e rv e a u n u i s c o p u til.
P rim a rn a ~ in a c u a b u ri c u u tilita te p a rc tic a
a fo s t in v e n ta ta in
1 6 9 8 d e u n in g in e r e n g le z
p e
num e
Thom as
S a v e ry . A b u ru l
d in tr-o
c a m e ra e ra ra c it p a n a s e c o n d e n s a ~ i fo rm a o
c a n tita te m ic a d e a p a . R e d u c e re am a re a v o lu -
~
m u lu i p ro d u c e a u n v id p a rtia l, c a re e ra fo lo s it ]
p e n tru a a b s o rb i a p a d in m in e le d e c a rb u n i.
8
F o r1 a
p is to n u lu i
j
L a
m a ~ in a
in v e n ta ta
d e
in g in e r u l
e n g le z ~
T h o rn a s N e w c o m e n , in ju ru l a n u lu i 1 7 1 0 ,a b u - :f

r ii im p in g e a u u n p is to n in s u s p r in tr - u n c ilin - d ru . A p o i c ilin d ru l e ra ra c it p e n tru a c o n d e n s a a b u rii, ~ i p is to n u l e ra tra s 1 n jo s . C o n d e n s a re a

>
: 2
~
~~
O
H e ro n
d in
A le x a n d r ia
a
c o n s tru it
a c e a s ta
sim p
la
tu rb in a
c u
a b u ri
in
s e c o lu l
I e .n .
a b u r ilo r
re d u c e a
p re s iu n e a
d in
c ilin d r u ,
a s fe l
In c a t p re s iu n e a
a tm o s fe ric ~
e ra s u fic ie n ~
p e n -
tr u
a Im p in g e
p is to n u lln
jo s . D in
a c e s t m o tiv ,
N ew com en
l~ i n u m e a
rn a ~ in a c u a b u ri "a tm o s -
fe ric ~ ". E a e ra fo lo s it~
p e n tru
a pune
1 n fu n c ti-
une pompe
de ~.
D e ~ i s -a d o v e d it
m u lt m a i
e fic ie n ~
d e c a t s is te m u l
lu i
S a v e r y , m a ~ in a lu i
N ew com en
e ra e x tre m
d e In c e a ~
~ i in e fic a c e .
A c e a s ta p e n tru
c~ dup~
ra :c ire c ilin d ru l
tre b u ia
In c ~ lz it
p e n tru
a p ro d u c e
d in
n o u
a b u rii n e c e -
s a ri
c a re
s ~
1 m p in g ~
p is to n u l
I n
s u s . A 1 tfe l
a b u rii
s -a r fi c o n d e n s a t
in s ta n ta n e u .
M a ~ in a
lu i
W att
C e l c a re
a
re z o lv a t
a c e a s t~
p ro b le m a
a
fo s t
in g in e r u l
s c o tia n
Jam es
W a tt.
L a
m a ~ in a
s a
in v e n ta t~
I n
1 7 6 9 , a b u rii
tre c e a u In tr-o
c a m e r~
s e p a ra t~
p e n tru
c o n d e n s a re .
D e o a re c e
c ilin -
d ru l
n u
e ra In c ~ lz it
~ i ra :c it a lte m a tiv ,
p ie rd e r-
ile
d e c ~ ld u r a : a le m a ~ in ii e r a u
re la tiv
s c ~ z u te .
? ;-D e
a s e m e n e a , m a ~ in a lu i W a tt e ra m a i ra p id ~ ,
, p e n tru
c ~ s e p u te a u
a d m ite
m a i m u lti
a b u ri In
,: O
U n c a ru s e l a c 1 io n a t d e a b u ri la b a z a
T u rn u lu i
S t. J a q u e s d in
P a ris . M a jo rita te a
: c a r u s e le lo r
m o d e rn e
s u n t a c ~ io n a te d e e le c -
: tricitate
s a u d e m o to a re
c u a rd e re
in te rn a .
4 1
M A $ IN IL E
CU ABURI
~
O
M a rc h iz u l
d e
D ia n
a fa s t
u n u l
d in
p ia n ie r ii
in d u s trie i
d e
m a ta a re
d in
F ra n 1 a .
A ic i
e l p a a te
ti v a z u t
m e rg a n d
p e
a
tric ic le ta
a c 1 ia n a ta
d e
a b u ri,
p e
c a re
a
c a n s tru it-a
in
a n u l
1 8 9 7 .
M a ta ru l,
a fla t
in
fa 1 a ,
a c 1 ia n e a z a
ra a ta
d in
s p a te .
to n u lu i,
lm p in g a n d u - l
ln a in te .
A p o i
e i
s u n t
a d m i~ i
la
c e l:lla lt
c a p :lt
a l p is to n u lu i,
lm p in -
g a n d u -l
d in
n o u
1 n a p o i. D e
aceea asemenea
m o to a re
se spune
c :l s u n t c u d u b l:l
a c tiu n e .
.5 iru l d e
p ro c e s e
ln c e p e
a tu n c i
c a n d
a b u fii
s u n t a d m i~ i la u n
c a p :lt a l c ilin d r u lu i
p fin tr-u n
canal de
a d m is iu n e .
A p o i
c a n a lu l
d e
a d m is i-
u n e
s e ln c h id e ,
ia r a b u fii
s e d ila ta
lm p in g a n d
p is to n u l
I n
jo s
p fin
c ilin d r u .
D u p :l
a c e e a
a b u rii
s u n t a d m i~ i la c e l:lla lt
c a p :lt a l p is to n u -
lu i,
lm p in g a n d u - l
ln a p o i
p rin
c ilin d r u .
A b u rii
d in
p rim u l
c a p :lt ie s p fitr-u n
canal de evacua-
re . A b u rii
s u n t a d m i~ i a lte m a tiv
la fie c a re
c a -
p :lt a l p is to n u lu i,
ia r c e l:lla lt
c a p :lt e s te c o n e c -
ta t a u to m a t
la c a n a lu l
s a u te a v a d e
e v a c u a re .
L a rn a jo rita te a
rn a ~ in ilo r c u a b u fi p e n tru
fie -
c a re p is to n
1 n tre g u l p ro c e s
e s te c o n tro la t
de o
s in g u rn
s u p a p :lln
fo rin a
lite re i D . A c e a s ta a lu -
n e c :l 1 n a in te ~ i ln a p o i
p e n tru
a fa c e
le g :ltu rile
c u c a n a le le d e a d m is iu n e
~ i d e e v a c u a re a a b u -
filo r.
U n e le
m a ~ in i m a i m a fi c u a b u ri a u s u p a -
p e
s e p a ra te p e n tru
fie c a re
c a p :lt a l p is to n u lu i.
M a n iv e le
M i~ c a re a
d e
"d u -te -v in o "
a
p is to n u lu i
e s te
tra n s fo rm a ta
I n
m i~ c a re
ro ta tiv :l
p rin
in te rm e -
d iu l
u n e i
b ie le
d e
ra c o rd a re
~ i
a l
u n e i
r n a n iv e le .
M a n iv e la
e s te
u n
b ra t
a ta ~ a t la
u n
v o la n t g re u , ia r b ie la d e ra c o rd a re
fa c e le g :ltu ra
ln tre
rn a n iv e l:l
~ i p is to n ,
sau o
b ie l:l
a ta ~ a ta la
u n p is to n . P e m :ls u rn c e p is to n u l
s e d e p la s e a z :l
ln a in te
~ i 1 n a p o i, r n a n iv e la
s e ln v a rte
~ i v o la n -
tu l u n ifo n n iz e a z :l
fo rta
d e rn s u c ire
p ro d u s :l.
C and
a b u fii
d in tr-u n
c ilin d r u
s e
d ila ta ,
te m p e ra tu ra
lo r s c a d e . U n e fe c t s im ila r
p u te m
o b s e rv a
la
fo lo s ire a
u n e i
c u tii
c u
a e ro s o l.
D ila ta re a
g a z u lu i
p ro p u ls o r
fa c e v a p o fiz a to ru l
s :l fie
re c e la a tin g e re .
L a o m a ~ in :l e le m e n ta r:l
lu i
s a u
a
c a rb u n ilo r.
in
c e n tra le le
n u c le a re
c a ld u ra
e s te p ro d u s a
p rin
re a c tii n u c le a re .
D u b la
a c 1 iu n e
L a o r n a ~ in a c u a b u r i s im p la
p re s iu n e a
a b u r ilo r
e s te e x e rc ita ta
a s u p ra
u n u i
c a p a t a l c ilin d r u lu i
p e n tru
a -l p u n e
in
m i~ c a r e . in s a
la rn a jo rita te a
m a ~ in ilo r
c u a b u r i, a m b e le
c a p e te a le p is to n u -
lu i s u n t fo lo s ite
p e n tru
a p ro d u c ~
fo l1 :l m e c a -
n ic a . A b u r ii
s u n t in ta i a d m i~ i la u n c a p a t a l p is -
O
O
m a ~ in a c u
a b u ri d e m a re
p re -
s iu n e , c u d o i c ilin d r i,
fo lo s ita
m a i d e m u lt
in tr-u n
c a rg o b o t
m ic.
c ilin d r u
o d a ta
c e p is to n u l
s e In to rc e a
I n
p o z i-
t ia
in itia la .
A c e a s ta ~ i a lte Im b u n a ta tiri
c o n c e -
p u te
d e
W att
a u fa c u t
c a m a ~ in a
c u
a b u ri
s a
p o a ta
fi fo lo s ita
In tr-o
g a m a la rg a
d e a p lic a tii.
I n
p e rio a d a
v ic to ria n a ,
lo c o m o tiv e
c u
a b u ri
p u te m ic e
re v o lu tio n a s e ra
d e ja c a la to r ia
p e
u s -
c a t. M a ~ in ile
c u
a b u r i a u fa c u t p o s ib ile
~ i tip a -
rire a z ia re lo r, to rs u l ~ i te s u tu l te x tile lq r
~ i a c tio -
n a re a
m a ~ in ilo r
d e
s p a la t
I n
" s p a la to r iile
c u
a b u ri".
M a ~ in ile
c u
a b u ri
p u n e a u
1 :n m i~ c a re
c a r u s e le le , ia r u n ii fe n n ie r i
fo lo s e a u
e n e rg ia
d e
a b u r p e n tru
a
a ra p a m a n tu l.
A n tre p re n o rii

d e c u ra J ;a to rii a v e a u a s p ira to a re c u a b u ri, ~ i la c e le m ai bune

friz e rii d in
o ra ~ e e x is ta u c h ia r ~ i p e rii
p e n tru
m a s a re a c a p u lu i
a c tio n a te
d e a b u ri.
M is c a re a
ro ta tiv a
M a jo rita te a
p r;m e lo r
m a ~ in i
c u
a b u ri
p ro d u -
c e a u
o
m i~ c a re
a lte rh a tiv a
(d e
"d u -te -v in o ")
p rin
in te rm e d iu l
p is t9 a n e lo r
c a re
s e d e p la s a u
In c ilin d r i.
A c e a s ta m i~ c a re a p u tu t
a p o i s a fie
tra n s fo rm a ta
I n
m i~ c a re
ro ta tiv a
p rin
m ijlo a c e
m e c a n ic e .
T u r b in e le
c u a b u ri p ro d u c
~ c a re a
ro ta tiv a
n e m ijlo c it
p rin
fo 1 1 a a b u rilo r.
M a i m u lti
in v e n -
ta to ri
a u
e x p e rim e n ta t
c u
tu rb in e
c u
a b u ri 1 :n
a n ii
1 8 0 0 , In s a a b ia In
a n u l
1 8 8 4 a a p a ru t
u n
m o d e l e fic ie n t ~ i m a n e v r a b i, in v e n ta t d e in g in e -
ru l e n g le z
C h a rle s P a rs o n s . L a c a tiv a
a n i d e la
in v e n tie
tu rb in e le
P a rs o n s e ra u fo lo s ite
la p ro -
p u ls a re a v a s e lo r ~ i a c tio n a re a
g e n e ra to a re lo r.
T ra n s fo rm a re a
e n e rg ie i
M a ~ in ile c u a b u r i ~ i tu r b in e le
tra n s fo rm a
c a ld u -
ra 1 n e n e rg ie .
L a
a m b e le
c a ld u ra
p ro d u s a
d e
c o m b u s tib il
e s te fo lo s ita
la fie rb e re a
a p e i, o b ti-
n a n d u -s e u n v o lu m
d e a b u ri d e 1 .6 0 0 d e o ri m a i
m a re , ia r a b u rii
c o m p rim a ti
p r6 v o a c a
m i~ c a re .
L a m o to a re le
c u
p is to n , a b u r ii s e d ila ta
1 n tr-u n
c ilin d r u ,
1 m p in g a n d
u n
p is to n .
L a tu rb in e le
c u
a b u r i, a b u 1 ii c a r e s e d ila ta a q io n e a z a
ro to a re . In
a m b e le c a z u r i, a b u r ii p ie r d
e n e rg ie te n n ic a .
M a ~ in ile
c u
a b u ri ~ i tu rb in e le
s u n t e x e m p le
d e m o to a re c u a rd e re e x te m a , d e o a re c e c a ld u ra
s e a p lic a In
a fa ra s e c to ru lu i d e lu c ru , d e o b ic e i
p rin
c o m b u s tie -a rd e re a
c o m b u s tib ililo r .
A b u rii
s u n t c re a ti In
fie rb a to a re
p rin
a rd e re a p e tro lu -
4 2
O
L a
m o to ru l
c u
a b u ri
c u
trip la
e x p a n s iu n e
a b u rii
s e
d ila ta
in
tre i
fa z e .
M i~ c a re a
in
s u s
~ i in
jo s
a
p is to a n e lo r
in
c ilin d r i
in v a rte
a rb o re le
c o tit
c u
m a n iv e la .
M A $ IN A
CU ABU~I
C U E X C IT A T IE
M IX T A
(C U
T R IP L A
E X P A N S IU N E )
O
L a o m a ~ in a c u
a b u ri c u d u b la
a c ,i-
une, o supapa
g li-
s a n ta d ir ije a z a
a u to m a t
flu x u l
d e
a b u ri s p re
p is to a n e
~ i d e la p is to a n e
s p re
c a n a lu l d e
e v a c u a re .
M A $ IN A
CU ABURI
I N
E C H IC U R E N T
C U
D U B L A
A C T IU N E
O
M i~ c a re a
d e
"d u _ -
1 . d e c lic
lib e r
2 .
c a n a l
d e
a d m is iu n e
3 . p is to n
4 .
c a n a l
d e
e v a c u a re
5 .
c a n a l
d e
a d m is iu n e
6 .
b ie la
p is to n u lu i
7 .
d e c lic
lib e r
B . ~ in a
d e
g h id a re
9 .
g lis ie r a
(p a tin a
g h id a ta )
1 0 .
b ie la
d e
ra c o rd a re
1 1 .
v o la n t
(in e rtie
m a re )
7
1 0
s
6
re a
a b u r ilo r
p e
p rim a
c u rs a
la v a s e , ~ i u n e le
n a v e g e rm a n e
a v e a 4 m o to a re
cu o
a p a tra
fa z ~ d e e x p a n s iu n e .
M a ~ in i
c u
a b u ri
in
e c h ic u re n t
M a ~ in ile
c u a b u ri 1 n e c h ic u re n t
s u n t c o n c e p u te
p e n tru
a
re d u c e
p ie rd e rile
d e
c ~ ld u ra ,
re d u -
c a n d
s c h im b a r ile
d e
te m p e ra tu ra
1 n c ilin d r u .
A b u rii
a d m i~ i la c a p e te le
c ilin d r u lu i
s e d ila ta : ~ i
s u n t.e v a c u a ti p rin r-u n
in e l d e c a n a le d e e v a c u -
a r e a fla t la m ijlo c .
A s tfe l c ilin d ru l
ra m a n e
re la -
tiv fie rb in te
la c a p e te ~ i m a i r e c e la m ijlo c , u n d e
s e a fl~ 1 n c o n ta c t c u a b u r ii d ila ta ti. C ilin d r u l
n u
e s te s u p u s
la
s c h im b ~ ri
m ari
d e
te m p e ra tu ra ,
a s tfe l p ie rd e rile
d e c ~ ld u ra
s u n t m in im e .
T u rb in e
P r in c ip a la
p a rte a c tiv ~ a u n e i tu rb in e
e s te ro to -
ru l p e c a re e s te m o n ta ta : o g a rn itu ra

d e p a le te . R o to ru l s e a fl~ 1 n tr-o c a rc a s ~ p re v ~ z u ta : c u p a le - te f1 X e p e n tru

d irija re a
flu x u lu i
a b u rilo r.
R o to ru l
e s te a c tio n a t d e a b u ri a fla ti s u b m a re p re s iu n e .
A b u rii
a ju n g 1 n c a rc a s a tu rb in e i
p rin
a ju ta je .
c a n d
a b u rii
s u n t e lib e r a ti,
p re s iu n e a
lo r s c a d e
~ i e i s e d ila ta :. A c e a s ta : d ila ta re
d e te rm in ~
c re ~ -
te re a
v ite z e i
lo r,
c a re
p o a te
1 n tre c e
d e
m ai
m u lte
o ri
v ite z a
s u n e tu lu i.
D e
e x e m p lu ,
a b u r ilo r
p e
c u rs a d e
in a p o ie r e
O
L a
o
m a ~ in a
c u
a b u ri
in
e c h ic u re n t
a b u rii
d in tr-u n
c a p a t
a l c ilin d r u lu i
im p in g
p is to n u l
~ i
ie s
p rin
c a n a lu l
d e
e v a c u a re .
A b u rii
d in
c e la la lt
c a p a t
s u n t
e v a c u a 1 i
p e
a c e la ~ i
tra s e u .
P R IN C IP IU L M A $ IN II C U A B U R I iN
E C H IC U R E N T
c u
a b u ri
c u
d u b la
a c tiu n e ,
d ila ta re a
a b u r ilo r
d e te rm in a
ra c ire a
a c e lu l
c a p a t
a l
c ilin d r u lu i
u n d e
u rm e a z a
sa fie
a d m i~ i a b u r i n o i.
D aca
a b u rii
s u fe ra
o
d ila ta re
m a re , ra c ire a
p ro d u s a
d e te rm in a
p ie rd e ri
e x c e s iv e
d e c a ld u -
ra In
m a ~ in a . A c e s te
p ie rd e ri
p o t
fi c o m p e n -
s a te
a rz a n d u -s e
m ai
m u lt
c o m b u s tib il,
In s a
a c e a s ta
re d u c e
e fic a c ita te a
m a ~ in ii.
S c h im -
b a re a d e te m p e ra tu ra
p o a te
fi re d u s a p rin
lim i-
ta re a p re s iu n ii
v a p o r ilo r
a d m i~ i In c ilin d r u ,
a s t-
fe lln c a t
s a a ib a lo c
o d ila ta re
m a i re d u s a . in s a
a c e s t lu c ru
re d u c e
p u te re a
m a ~ in ii.
M a ,in i
c u
e x c ita 1 ie
m ix ta
P ro b le m a
p o a te
f i
re z o lv a ta
p e rm ita n d u -s e
m a i In ta i
d ila ta re a
p a rtia la
a
a b u r ilo r
In tr-u n
c ilin d r u
m ic , d e
m are
p re s iu n e .
A b u rii
e v a c u -
a ti d in
a c e s ta s u n t a p o i tre c u ti In tr-u n
c illin d r u
m a i m a re , d e p re s iu n e
s c a z u ta , u n d e
c o n tin u a
d ila ta re a .
M a ~ in ile
c u
a b u ri
c a re
fo lo s e s c
d o i
s a u
m a i m u lti
c ilin d r i
I n
a c e s t fe l s e n u m e s c
m a ~ in i c u
e x c ita tie
m ix ta .
M o to a re le
c u trip la
e x p a n s iu n e
s u n t m a ~ in i
c u e x c ita tie
m ix ta
c u c ilin d r i
d e m a re p re s iu rie ,
d e
p re s iu n e
m e d ie
~i de
p re s iu n e
s c a z u ta ,
A s tfe l d e
m o to a re
a u
fo s t fo a rte
m u lt
fo lo s ite
4 3
te -v in o "
a
p is to n u lu i
la
a c e a s ta
m a ~ in a
c u
a b u ri
in
e c h ic u re n t
a c ,io n e a z a
p rin
in te rm e d iu l
b ie le i
d e
ra c o rd a re
p e n tru
a
in v a rti
v o la n tu l.

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