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ADAPTING DEDICATED HYDRODAM FOR ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION - UNILORIN CASE STUDY

ADAPTING DEDICATED HYDRODAM FOR ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION - UNILORIN CASE STUDY

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ADAPTING DEDICATED HYDRODAM FOR ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION - UNILORIN CASE STUDY
Akoshile, C. O.* and J. O. Olaoye***Physics Department**Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering Department,University of Ilorin, Ilorin
ABSTRACT
A case study on adaptation of a dedicated hydrodam for electrical power generation was presented with reference to Univeristy of Ilorin Dam. The features of the dam and dam site wereoverviewed in respect of its suitability to sustain hydrodams. Hydropower potential on theAfrican continent was reviewed and the continent lowest power utilization was revealed. TheUniversity of Ilorin has up to seven fossil fuel-based generators (not all are functional) atdifferent locations on the University Campus. Each of these when in use consumes drums of diesel fuel per day. Additional overhead cost goes to the requirement of technical and security personnel for keeping the generators running and safe with several personnel distributed to eachstation. Both technical know how and security requirement add to the overhead and total runningcost. It is therefore going to be useful to have a hydropower station located in one place tosupport and supplement power supply scheme on the Campus. The objective of this work was toindicate how dual roles of a domestic dam could be harnessed as Hydropower Station and water supply while particularly being useful in the rainy season when the runoff is very high and theDam is overflowing. It is also substantially producing power in part of the dry season when thehead drops. Some basic parameters on the Catchments area and climatological data wereestablished and the features indicated that the dam has potential to pilot and sustain hydrodamfor electrical power generation.
INTRODUCTIONHistory of Hydropower Generation in Nigeria
Generation of electricity from water dam has been the starting point to the energy developmentutilization in Nigeria. It has remained the most significant electrical power supply source for the
Akoshile, C. O. and Olaoye, J. O. (2009). A paper presented at a 2 – Day Seminar onHydropower Resources: Development, Management and the Environment Organizedby the National Centre for Hydropower Research and Development (An Agency of Energy Commission of Nigeria), University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria on 19
th
– 20
th
August, 2009.
 
country and the number of hydropower dams constructed in the country has continued toincrease.The dynamics of flowing water being used to drive turbine has led to the conversion of hydro-mechanical energy to electrical energy. The topology about the Dam site is usually modified to provide significant water head required to drive the turbine. What is being proposed in thisdesign is to utilize the base of an already constructed water dam by placing a turbine attached toa generator under the inherent water head to generate electricity. The electrical energy that will be produced in this way will be an extra dividend from the dam when successfully done whileconcurrently fulfilling its design objective of providing water to the University community.
Potentials of Hydropower on the African Continent
Klunne (2007) observed that there is enormous exploitable hydropower potential on the Africancontinent but that despite this, Africa has one of the lowest hydro-utilization rates. Currently lessthan 7% of the potential has been harnessed. Small hydropower can adequately contribute tomeet the electricity needs of the African countries. Availability of seasonal and permanent riversand streams provide excellent opportunities for hydropower development in the continent.According to Karekezi and Kithyoma (2005), the harnessed small hydropower in Nigeria is onlyabout 33.0 MW. This attempt would therefore be considered an effort made in the right direction.
Aims, Objective and Advantage
The Hydropower Station will be particularly useful in the rainy season when the runoff is veryhigh and the Dam is overflowing but also substantially in part of the dry season when the headdrops. The water can be channelled properly to enhance the generated electrical power.Whatever is generated (expected to be up to hundreds of kilowatt), would in no small waycontribute significantly in providing electrical energy supply to the University and offer somerelieve to the Power Holding Company of Nigeria.
Justification
The University of Ilorin has up to seven fossil fuel-based generators (not all is functional) atdifferent locations on the University Campus. Each of these when in use consumes drums of diesel fuel per day. They break down often and require regular servicing and maintenance. Thismakes the cost of maintenance correspondingly high.Additional overhead cost goes to the requirement of technical and security personnel for keepingthe generators running and safe with several personnel distributed to each station, both intechnical know how and security which add to the overhead and total cost. Occasions crop upwhen only one or none of the generators is functional requiring that running time be scheduled
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on them as they cannot run 24 hours, 7 days continuously for 52 weeks of the year. It is thereforegoing to be useful to have a hydropower station located in one place to support and supplement power supply scheme on the Campus.The plant when completed will operate at no extra fuel consumption and with longer life time. Itis an ecologically friendly machine and system. The initial cost may be the most significantaspect of the plant cost. Maintenance will be limited by having adequately trained staff,lubricant, component replacement and minor miscellaneous items. It will be a pioneer project inthe vicinity which other universities and educational institutions can emulate. It is a way of utilizing what could be considered “waste” or excess water to generate wealth in electricalenergy supply. It will be part of the efforts in achieving one of the seven- point objectives of theagenda of the Yar’adua Administration.
Data Requirement
In the design and construction of this small hydropower station, significant prior data is required.These include: survey of site and available structure, understanding of base structure component,hydrology of the dam, estimating available and attainable water head, do component pricing for construction of the turbine house, drain channel, coupling system, turbine, generator controlsystem, transformer and distribution panel, prepare architectural design and do environmentalimpact assessment. These are necessary at first phase construction that can be considered as thefeasibility study component. The above will be followed by acquisition of the items required for the implementation to bring the design to construction and testing level.
Scope of Work on the Project
The project requires preliminary survey of feasibility components and actualization components.Tour to already operating hydropower stations and components supply firms will be useful toensure proper take-off. The second phase will be the detailed design, procurement, constructionand testing. It is expected that while the first-phase could take up to one year, the realization of the second phase could take an additional two years.
Hydrological Features and Canal
Some basic parameters on the Catchments area and climatological data such as average rainfall,average annual water flow and flood flow should be established. Detail information on reservoir such as high water level, total volume, type of spill way required and overflow elevation datawill be useful. Analysis of these shall guide in selection of preferred design.
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