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Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Vacuum Energy

Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Vacuum Energy

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Published by: api-26470372 on Feb 22, 2010
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04/09/2013

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Dark matter, dark energyand vacuum energy The ultimate quest ?
1
 
How did it start ?
In 1687 Isaac Newton ‘s law of universal gravitation , the firstmodern scientific description of gravity, involves “action” at adistance “. Newton is sure there must be an acount of gravity withoutthis nonlocality, and even tries an unsuccessful theori in which
tiny,invisable, jiggling particles fill all of seemingly empty space.
( pict. right)
Who predicted the existence of dark matter ?
The swiss Fritz Zwicky (1898-1974, (pict. right)measured in 1933 the mass of the Coma cluster of galaxies, a near galaxie cluster outside our own . Hefound this to be 400 times the mass of all visible starsfrom galaxies in this cluster. His conclution was thatit had to be an invisibel mass in the univers, “gluingtogether” the galaxis.What kind of particles could this bee, and not beeingobserevable? Such particles could not be any of thosecreated in particle accelerators, such as quarks,leptons and bosons .
The first evidence .
In the MaxPlanck institute for astronomy in Heidelberg three-dimentional pictures fromgalaxies was scrutinized, and especially pictures from the Hubble space telescope revealed a peculiar phenonmena, called “gravitation lenses”. (pict. down, left)Such distortion of a picture from a star cluster could only get its explanation from anenormous gravitation influence. The stars in this the cluster could only contribute with a few percent of this, the rest had to come from the dark matter. In fact, his proves the existence of dark matter.2
 
What is the universe made of ?
Just take a look at the picture (right)(Mc-Donald Observatory) Normalmatter amounts to only 5 %, that’s all !Dark matter amounts to 21 % but is completely overshadoved bydark energy, another mysteriouscontent in the universe.
What is then dark energy ?
Sorry, no one knows the answer todag . A full clarification will probably disclose å new kindof physics, shaking our modern comprehension of particles behaviour in their fundaments.But something seems clarified about dark energy
:
It shows a repulsiv force, and is responsoble for the expansion of the universe.
Dark energy is probably relayed to what is called vacuum energy
Dark energy is uniformly distributed in the universe , it doesn’t clog like dark matter.So we still don’t know for sure what dark energy is ! In the standard model for particle physics we find no neutral, heavy particles beeing stable for the lifetime of the universe.Therefore, scientists has given such mystical particles the name “Weakly Interactive MassiveParticle”or WIMP. In the nearby months, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Cern could possibly give scientists important information about the true nature of WIMP’s.
Is dark matter homogenous distributed in universe ?
Simon White, direktor by Mac Planck Institute for astrophysics in Germany, has during 17years studied computer-simulation of dark matter contribution in the universe. He revealedthat dark matter was irregulary distributed, and clogging . He was able to visualize theclogging in pictures, giving an impressionof their extension in space. In pict.(right)the scale given is 500 Mpe/h (megaparcel)corresponding to 2 billion lightyears.White says that dark matter must be an upto now unknown type of an elementary particle. We believe it’s kind of supersymmetric particles, Wimps.3

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