ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSMany people offered help and support while working on my thesis. A supportive andchallenging advisor, Judith Tendler, gave an extraordinary amount of her time andenergy throughout the project. My reader, Paul Smoke, gave critical feedback thathelped me organize my ideas. Meenu Tewari also read my drafts with great detail and provided me with excellent feedback to organize my ideas and writing. Eduardo Betetaand Gabrielle Watson coordinated the work of the group in Fortaleza, helping in theinitial stages of discussing factual material collected in the field.My appreciation to my friends in the thesis group, Mônica Amorim, Julia Bucknall,Silvia Dorado, Sara Freedheim, Ruth Wade, and Sandra Zarur, who shared the longthesis process with me, from the thesis preparation to the field work in Ceará and thediscussion of the findings back in Cambridge.This thesis has been made possible by the State Government of Ceará, Brazil, whichfunded my field research during the summer 1992. It would be impossible to mention allthe people who provided support and helped me providing useful information. Particular thanks to Dr. Antônio Rocha Magalhães, Dr. Antônio Claudio Ferreira Lima, andJoaquim Favela Neto, as well as all the technical staff of IPLANCE and SEPLAN.Special thanks to the leaders, technical staff, and members of the cooperatives whoshared with me their time and experience, and also to the members of the Movimento dosSem Terra and the EMATERCE extension agents I interviewed during that time.