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AZ024 Lecture 10

AZ024 Lecture 10



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Published by Tong Kin Lun

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Published by: Tong Kin Lun on Sep 06, 2007
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 -1-December 2006
Topic: Overall Maintenance Considerations for Functional and HighQuality BuildingsPart I: Introduction to Building Maintenance
1.0 Definition of Building Maintenance
British Standard BS 3811 defines ‘maintenance’ as:‘work undertaken in order to keep or restore every facilities, ie. Every part of a site,building and contents to an acceptable standard’However, this definition is more generally seen in an engineering context and theChartered Institute of Building supports the following definition:-‘Building Maintenance is work undertaken to keep, restore or improve every facility,ie, every part of a building, its services and surround to an agreed standard,determined by the balance between need and available resources’
The objective of Maintenance
a. Global Objective of a Maintenance System
Repair and replacement done when necessary
Maintenance budget allocated on a needs basisb. Objectives for a Social Organization
Maximize, building life
Achieve tenant satisfaction
Working within constraints of budget available
c. Objectives for a Commercial Organization
Ensure building functions efficiently
Building yields an economic return
Maximize building life
Balance maintenance expenditure and building efficiency
 -2-December 2006
Concept of Building Maintenance
Maintenance Management can be divided into Building Maintenance Technology andBuilding Maintenance Management proper. The former essentially deals with thestudy of the occurrence of building defects, such as deterioration of building finishes/ fabric and the remedies which such defects would require. It involves the applicationof the principles of the physical sciences to the process of determining the effects onbuilding performances produced by the intrinsic properties of building materials, theloading distribution of the building structure and other related factors.Building Maintenance Management should properly be regarded as describing how asystem of maintenance effort could be organized to deal with the problems of buildingmaintenance as whole. It recognizes that, aside from locating and rectifying defects,an effective programme to curb maintenance costs must start with the design of thebuilding itself and must eventually justify itself, not only in terms of minimizing thecosts of maintenance, but also in maximizing the benefits of the investment, Thismeans that financial considerations and techniques play a vital role.
Classification of Maintenance
Generally, the nature or maintenance work is divided into three main aspects:
Cyclic or Routine Maintenance
Specific tasks carried out at regular-intervals without prior inspection such asclear-out of the curtain walling, flushing gutters, gullies, drains, manholes andreplacement periodically of times with a predictable life.
Planned Maintenance (or called preventive maintenance)
Planned maintenance consists of taking corrective or preventive action in orderto avoid expected or avoidable failure. In Hong Kong government, ArchSD havea planned maintenance scheme on government building annually, for example,inspect theexternal wall and implement the renovation works. A well-thoughmaintenance plan can save considerable sums of money, although the need forcost effectiveness must be borne in mind. For example, monitoring schemes maybe more costly than the periodic replacement of items with a predictable serviceslife. Moreover, planned maintenance may lead to over-maintenance work if lifetime of building elements isn’t fully understood.
 -3-December 2006
Emergency Maintenance
Emergency maintenance is the speedy action need to rectify failures of thebuilding elements. These can stem from failures in planned maintenance or fromnatural or other causes, eg, storm, flood, accidents or security. However, it can bereduced to a minimum if routine and planned maintenance are systemicallycarried out and well-defined. In fact, extensive emergency maintenance isdisruptive to occupiers as well as being wasteful. For example, the suddenbreaking-down of the electrical switchboard.
5.0 Diagnosis and Investigation Techniques for building maintenance
Building diagnosis involved a process in which experts (eg: Building Surveyor,Building Manager) investigate the existing condition of the building or the defect,carry out the necessary tests, evaluate the data collected, make recommendationsprofessionally, and predict the future performance of the building or after repairing.The diagnosis process will involve wide range of techniques from the most simple –visual inspection to some scientific test, like the chloride test in evaluating thestrength of the spalling concrete. They all aims at transforming measurablecharacteristics and properties of the defect or structure into valuable informationappropriate to the building condition and performance.
6.0 Principle of Diagnosis
In the diagnosis process, relevant professional should be analyzed the obtained datacarefully and hypothesis have to be tested to determine which one best explains thecauses of the defect. The whole process is never a simple straightforward one. On thehand, it is iterative; the more unusual or complex the cause, the more will be the needto go back and repeat all of the stage previously completed (Figure 1.).In short, the investigation required for the diagnosis of the building defect which hasto be carried out thoroughly and systemically. Here are some points to be noted duringthe diagnosis of the building defect:
A list of the potential cause of a defect would be useful as a reference point toreturn who unexplained symptoms are found or a diagnosis is challenged
Diagnosis is required to be done step-by-step in a systematic manner. But it is

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