-1-October 2006 (rev.b)
Lecture 2 - Reinforced Concrete(I)
Topic: Introduction to reinforced concrete; structural behaviors of reinforced concrete;Calculation of shearing force and bending moment
Introduction to reinforced concrete
Concrete is a manmade material created by the proper mixing of coarse aggregate, such asfine aggregate, such as sand, and cement, with adequate and controlled amounts of water. Thecement forms a slurry with the water, which under chemical action starts to set. The fineaggregate fills the interstices of the coarse aggregate and the slurry fills the interstices of thefine aggregates, coating all the particles and binding the whole together into a monolithicmass when set. This is concrete.Concrete is a very strong in compression, and ultimate strength is about 40 to 60N/mm
canbe obtained. However, concrete is very weak in tension, and so has to be adequatelyreinforced with steel rebars. The concrete then takes the compression, and the steel takes allthe tension. Both materials work together as a composite material. This material is then calledreinforced concrete.
Failure of the beam due to bending, shear and deflection
The beam will have to be strong enough to withstand the loads, stable enough not to fall over,and be stiff enough to meet the function requirement of serviceability. The stability of thebeam can be achieved by giving it sufficient lateral bracing, which will hold it firmly inposition, and the serviceability or function can be achieved by limiting the amount of thedeflection. However, the strength will depend upon two forces, the force which will cause thebeam to bend and the force which will cause the fibres to shear past each other. The first forcecould produce failure due to bending and the second, failure due to shear. Assuming then,there is sufficient stability, it is worth looking at a simple beam, and seeing how it may failunder bending, shear and deflection.
Failure due to bending
Consider the beam in Figure 1, which is supported at point A and point B. If a number of loads are placed on the beam, the beam will bend and deflect as shown in Figure 2.The fibres in the top of the beam will be in compression while the bottom fibres will be intension. If the tension and compression exceed the natural strength of the material from which