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AZ024 Lecture 2(rev[1] b)

AZ024 Lecture 2(rev[1] b)



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Published by Tong Kin Lun

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Published by: Tong Kin Lun on Sep 06, 2007
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-1-October 2006 (rev.b)
Lecture 2 - Reinforced Concrete(I)
Topic: Introduction to reinforced concrete; structural behaviors of reinforced concrete;Calculation of shearing force and bending moment
Introduction to reinforced concrete
Reinforced Concrete
Concrete is a manmade material created by the proper mixing of coarse aggregate, such asfine aggregate, such as sand, and cement, with adequate and controlled amounts of water. Thecement forms a slurry with the water, which under chemical action starts to set. The fineaggregate fills the interstices of the coarse aggregate and the slurry fills the interstices of thefine aggregates, coating all the particles and binding the whole together into a monolithicmass when set. This is concrete.Concrete is a very strong in compression, and ultimate strength is about 40 to 60N/mm
canbe obtained. However, concrete is very weak in tension, and so has to be adequatelyreinforced with steel rebars. The concrete then takes the compression, and the steel takes allthe tension. Both materials work together as a composite material. This material is then calledreinforced concrete.
Failure of the beam due to bending, shear and deflection
The beam will have to be strong enough to withstand the loads, stable enough not to fall over,and be stiff enough to meet the function requirement of serviceability. The stability of thebeam can be achieved by giving it sufficient lateral bracing, which will hold it firmly inposition, and the serviceability or function can be achieved by limiting the amount of thedeflection. However, the strength will depend upon two forces, the force which will cause thebeam to bend and the force which will cause the fibres to shear past each other. The first forcecould produce failure due to bending and the second, failure due to shear. Assuming then,there is sufficient stability, it is worth looking at a simple beam, and seeing how it may failunder bending, shear and deflection.
Failure due to bending
Consider the beam in Figure 1, which is supported at point A and point B. If a number of loads are placed on the beam, the beam will bend and deflect as shown in Figure 2.The fibres in the top of the beam will be in compression while the bottom fibres will be intension. If the tension and compression exceed the natural strength of the material from which
-2-October 2006 (rev.b)
the beam has been made, then the beam will fail due to excessive bending stress.
Figure 1:-Simply supported beamFigure 2Figure 3:- Bending failure
Let us take the example of concrete beam (Figure 3.) the load on the beam will cause tensioncracks in the bottom fibres. If the load is increased, the cracks will become larger and thebeam will become fail. This is because concrete, although very strong in compression, hasvery little strength in tension, and cannot on its own withstand tension stresses. Where tensionoccurs, the concrete has to be reinforced with steel reinforcing bars. If the steel bars wereplaced at the bottom of the beam, then the steel will resist the tension stress and the beam willcarry a much greater load before it fails under bending. For failure to occur, either theconcrete in the top of the beam has to crush, or the steel in the bottom has to be pulled apart.Which will fail first will depend upon the amount of steel, then the steel will fail first, but if there is a large amount, then the concrete in the top will crush long before the steel will beginto yield.
-3-October 2006 (rev.b)
Failure due to shearFigure 4:- Deep BeamFigure 5:-Shear Failure
Consider a deep beam spanning between two supports A and B (Figure 4). If a very heavyload is placed on the beam, it will punch a section out of the beam (Figure 5). This kind of failure is called shear failure, because the molecules on one sides of the shear line havesheared past the molecules on the other side of the line. The angle of the shear line is usuallyat about 45 degrees as shown in Figure 5.Take an example of a reinforced concrete beam, it is considered how this beam could be madestrong enough to resist the shear forces. Remember that concrete has little strength in tension,so to resist the shear, steel reinforcement has to be placed across the 45 degree ‘shear crack’.This can be done in two ways. The normal way is to use stirrups or links fixed vertically alongthe beam. These links are vertical reinforcement bars which wrap around and hold the mainreinforcement bars in position. Because these links are vertical, they cross over the shear lineand prevent the concrete from cracking.

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