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Intro Linux

Intro Linux

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Published by: mohammad reza ardian abdillah on Feb 23, 2010
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Introduction to Linux
A Hands on Guide
Machtelt Garrels
Garrels.be
<tille wants no spam _at_ garrels dot be>
1.27 EditionCopyright © 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 Machtelt Garrels20080606
 
Table of Contents
Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................1
1. Why this guide?...................................................................................................................................12. Who should read this book?.................................................................................................................13. New versionsand availability..............................................................................................................14. Revision History..................................................................................................................................25. Contributions.......................................................................................................................................36. Feedback..............................................................................................................................................37. Copyright inf ormation.........................................................................................................................38. What do you need?...............................................................................................................................49. Conventions used in this document.....................................................................................................410. Organizationof this document...........................................................................................................5
Chapter 1. What is Linux?.................................................................................................................................7
1.1. History..............................................................................................................................................71.1.1. UNIX.......................................................................................................................................71.1.2. Linus andLinux.......................................................................................................................81.1.3. Current application of Linux systems.....................................................................................91.2. The user interface..............................................................................................................................91.2.1. Is Linux difficult?....................................................................................................................91.2.2. Linux fornon-experienced users...........................................................................................101.3. Does Linuxhave a future?..............................................................................................................101.3.1. Open Source..........................................................................................................................101.3.2. Ten yearsof experience at your service................................................................................111.4. Properties of Linux.........................................................................................................................121.4.1. Linux Pros.............................................................................................................................121.4.2. Linux Cons............................................................................................................................131.5. Linux Flavors..................................................................................................................................141.5.1. Linuxand GNU.....................................................................................................................141.5.2. GNU/ Linux............................................................................................................................151.5.3. Which distribution should I install?......................................................................................151.6. Summary.........................................................................................................................................161.7. Exercises.........................................................................................................................................16
Chapter 2. Quickstart.......................................................................................................................................18
2.1. Logging in, activating the user interface and logging out..............................................................182.1.1. Introduction...........................................................................................................................182.1.2. Graphicalmode.....................................................................................................................182.1.3. Text mode..............................................................................................................................202.2. Absolute basics...............................................................................................................................212.2.1. The commands......................................................................................................................212.2.2. General remarks....................................................................................................................212.2.3. Using Bash features...............................................................................................................222.3. Getting help.....................................................................................................................................232.3.1. Be warned..............................................................................................................................232.3.2. The man pages.......................................................................................................................232.3.3. More info...............................................................................................................................252.4. Summary.........................................................................................................................................282.5. Exercises.........................................................................................................................................29
Introduction to Linuxi
 
Chapter 2. Quickstart
2.5.1. Connecting and disconnecting...............................................................................................292.5.2. Passwords..............................................................................................................................292.5.3. Directories.............................................................................................................................302.5.4. Files.......................................................................................................................................302.5.5. Getting help...........................................................................................................................31
Chapter 3. About files andthe file system......................................................................................................32
3.1. General overview of the Linux file system.....................................................................................323.1.1. Files.......................................................................................................................................323.1.2. About partitioning.................................................................................................................333.1.3. More filesystem layout.........................................................................................................373.2. Orientation in the file system..........................................................................................................403.2.1. The path.................................................................................................................................403.2.2. Absoluteand relative paths...................................................................................................413.2.3. The mostimportant files and directories...............................................................................413.2.4. The most important configuration files.................................................................................443.2.5. The mostcommon devices....................................................................................................463.2.6. The mostcommon variable files...........................................................................................473.3. Manipulating files...........................................................................................................................483.3.1. Viewing f ile properties..........................................................................................................483.3.2. Creating and deleting files and directories............................................................................503.3.3. Finding files...........................................................................................................................533.3.4. More ways to view file content.............................................................................................573.3.5. Linking files..........................................................................................................................583.4. File security.....................................................................................................................................603.4.1. Access rights: Linux's first line of defense............................................................................603.4.2. The tools................................................................................................................................623.5. Summary.........................................................................................................................................673.6. Exercises.........................................................................................................................................683.6.1. Partitions................................................................................................................................683.6.2. Paths......................................................................................................................................683.6.3. Tour of the system.................................................................................................................693.6.4. Manipulating files..................................................................................................................693.6.5. File permissions.....................................................................................................................69
Chapter 4. Processes.........................................................................................................................................71
4.1. Processes insideout........................................................................................................................714.1.1. Multi-user and multi-tasking.................................................................................................714.1.2. Process types.........................................................................................................................714.1.3. Process attributes...................................................................................................................734.1.4. Displaying process information.............................................................................................744.1.5. Life and death of a process....................................................................................................764.1.6. SUID andSGID.....................................................................................................................784.2. Boot process, Init and shutdown.....................................................................................................804.2.1. Introduction...........................................................................................................................804.2.2. The boot process....................................................................................................................804.2.3. GRUB features......................................................................................................................80
Introduction to Linuxii

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