By Charles J. Carter, PE
by reference to an appropriate ASTM specification. This simplifies thedesign and construction process becauseall characteristics of the product speci-fied are defined by simple reference toan approved standard. However, withdozens of ASTM specifications applica-ble in steel building construction alone,it is often a challenge to keep the stan-dard designations in contract docu-ments current. Compounding this chal-lenge, there have been several recentadditions to the roster of available ASTM specifications of which manyspecifiers may be unaware.This article (Part Three) provides asummary of the common ASTM andother specifications used for fasteningproducts in building design and con-struction. The usual and other applica-ble ASTM specifications are addressed.Parts One (January 1999
) andTwo (February 1999
) focused onstructural shapes and plate, respective-ly.
The usual material specification forconventional (heavy-hex) high-strengthbolts in steel-to-steel structural connec-tions is ASTM A325, although ASTM A490 can be specified when higherstrength is desired. In either case, Type1 is most commonly specified. Whenatmospheric corrosion resistance isdesired, Type 3 can be specified.For some time now, alternative-design fasteners have been specified asdescribed in Section 2(d) of the
ResearchCouncil on Structural Connections Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts
. Recently, ASTM published its specification F1852,which formalizes the material and prod-uct requirements for these twist-off-typetension-control bolt assemblies in astrength-level that is equivalent to
Modern Steel Construction / March 1999
ASTM A325. For convenience, themarking system for these fasteners isthe more familiar A325 to avoid confu-sion.While still formally permitted in the AISC
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings
, the use of other materialspecifications in steel-to-steel structuralbolting applications has become quiteuncommon. ASTM A307 is almost asuncommonly specified today as are ASTM A501 and A502 rivets, perhapsonly in structurally nominal connectionssuch as those at the ends of girts andpurlins.
The usual material specification forheavy-hex nuts is ASTM A563. Theappropriate grade and finish is specifiedper ASTM A563 Table X1.1 according tothe bolt or threaded part with which thenut will be used. For steel-to-steel struc-tural bolting applications, the appropri-ate grade and finish is summarized in
Section 2(c). Although ASTM A194 is permitted asan alternative in some applications,they are generally more expensive andless available than ASTM A563 nuts.
The usual material specification forhardened steel washers is ASTM F436.This specification provides for both flatand beveled washers. While standard ASTM F436 washers are sufficient inmost applications, there are several spe-cific applications when special washersare required. Refer to
Sections 7(c)(6) and 7(c)(7),which outline the special washerrequirements that apply when oversizedand slotted holes are used in outer pliesof steel-to-steel structural bolting appli-cations. In anchor-rod and other embed-ment applications, hole sizes are gener-ally larger than those for steel-to-steelstructural bolting applications (seeLRFD
Table 11-3 for maximumanchor-rod hole sizes). Accordingly,washers used in such applications may
Partthree in athree-partseries:fasteningproducts