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ARE YOU PROPERLY SPECIFYING MATERIALS? 3 of 3

ARE YOU PROPERLY SPECIFYING MATERIALS? 3 of 3

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Published by vinceq1
Part three in a three part series: fastening products
Part three in a three part series: fastening products

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Published by: vinceq1 on Feb 23, 2010
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09/12/2010

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By Charles J. Carter, PE
T
HEMATERIALSANDPRODUCTSUSEDINBUILDINGDESIGNANDCONSTRUC
-
TIONAREALMOSTUNIVERSALLYDES
-
IGNATED
by reference to an appropriate ASTM specification. This simplifies thedesign and construction process becauseall characteristics of the product speci-fied are defined by simple reference toan approved standard. However, withdozens of ASTM specifications applica-ble in steel building construction alone,it is often a challenge to keep the stan-dard designations in contract docu-ments current. Compounding this chal-lenge, there have been several recentadditions to the roster of available ASTM specifications of which manyspecifiers may be unaware.This article (Part Three) provides asummary of the common ASTM andother specifications used for fasteningproducts in building design and con-struction. The usual and other applica-ble ASTM specifications are addressed.Parts One (January 1999
 MSC
) andTwo (February 1999
 MSC
) focused onstructural shapes and plate, respective-ly.
B
OLTS
The usual material specification forconventional (heavy-hex) high-strengthbolts in steel-to-steel structural connec-tions is ASTM A325, although ASTM A490 can be specified when higherstrength is desired. In either case, Type1 is most commonly specified. Whenatmospheric corrosion resistance isdesired, Type 3 can be specified.For some time now, alternative-design fasteners have been specified asdescribed in Section 2(d) of the
 ResearchCouncil on Structural Connections Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts
. Recently, ASTM published its specification F1852,which formalizes the material and prod-uct requirements for these twist-off-typetension-control bolt assemblies in astrength-level that is equivalent to
Modern Steel Construction / March 1999
 ASTM A325. For convenience, themarking system for these fasteners isthe more familiar A325 to avoid confu-sion.While still formally permitted in the AISC
 Specification for Structural Steel Buildings
, the use of other materialspecifications in steel-to-steel structuralbolting applications has become quiteuncommon. ASTM A307 is almost asuncommonly specified today as are ASTM A501 and A502 rivets, perhapsonly in structurally nominal connectionssuch as those at the ends of girts andpurlins.
N
UTS
The usual material specification forheavy-hex nuts is ASTM A563. Theappropriate grade and finish is specifiedper ASTM A563 Table X1.1 according tothe bolt or threaded part with which thenut will be used. For steel-to-steel struc-tural bolting applications, the appropri-ate grade and finish is summarized in
 RCSC Specification
Section 2(c). Although ASTM A194 is permitted asan alternative in some applications,they are generally more expensive andless available than ASTM A563 nuts.
W
 ASHERS
The usual material specification forhardened steel washers is ASTM F436.This specification provides for both flatand beveled washers. While standard ASTM F436 washers are sufficient inmost applications, there are several spe-cific applications when special washersare required. Refer to
 RCSC Spec-ification
Sections 7(c)(6) and 7(c)(7),which outline the special washerrequirements that apply when oversizedand slotted holes are used in outer pliesof steel-to-steel structural bolting appli-cations. In anchor-rod and other embed-ment applications, hole sizes are gener-ally larger than those for steel-to-steelstructural bolting applications (seeLRFD
 Manual
Table 11-3 for maximumanchor-rod hole sizes). Accordingly,washers used in such applications may
A
RE
Y
OU
P
ROPERLY
S
PECIFYING
M
ATERIALS
?
Partthree in athree-partseries:fasteningproducts
 
require design consideration for properforce transfer, particularly when theanchorage is subject to tension.
C
OMPRESSIBLE
-W
 ASHER
-T
 YPE
D
IRECT
-T
ENSION
I
NDICATORS
Four methods of installation are rec-ognized in
 RCSC Specification
Section8(d) for high-strength bolts in preten-sioned bearing joints, slip-critical jointsand joints subject to tension or com-bined shear and tension: turn-of-nutinstallation, calibrated wrench installa-tion, alternative-design-fastener instal-lation and direct-tension-indicatorinstallation. When the direct-tension-indicator installation method is used, ASTM F959 compressible-washer-typedirect-tension indicators are specified.Type A325 is used with ASTM A325high-strength bolts and type A490 isused with ASTM A490 high-strengthbolts.
 A
NCHOR
R
ODS
(
SEE BOX
—O
PPOSITE
P
 AGE
)
The usual material specification foranchor rods is ASTM F1554, a newmaterial specification that covershooked, headed and threaded and nut-ted anchor rods in three strengthgrades: 36, 55 and 105. Grade 55 is mostcommonly specified. The weldabilitysupplement S1 (with the carbon equiva-lent formula in ASTM F1554 SectionS1.5.2.1) is recommended as compara-tively inexpensive insurance for a moreflexible solution set should the anchorrods be placed incorrectly in the field. ASTM F1554 grades 36 and 105 areessentially the anchor-rod equivalentsof the generic rod specifications ASTM A36 and A193 grade B7, respectively. ASTM F1554 grade 55, when specifiedwith the weldability supplement, is sim-ilar to an ASTM A572 material that isintermediate between grades 50 and 60. Although ASTM F1554 is expected torapidly become the specification of choice for anchor rods, several other ASTM Specificationscan also be used.For applications involving unheadedrods, ASTM A36, A193, A307, A354, A449, A572, A588 and A687 can bespecified. For applications involvingheaded rods, ASTM A307, A354 and A449 can be specified.
T
HREADED
R
ODS
The usual material specification forthreaded rods, whether provided withplain or upset ends, is ASTM A36.Other material specifications that canbe specified include ASTM A193, A307,
Modern Steel Construction / March 1999
Did you say rods? I say bolts. You’renot from around here, are you?
“Anchor bolt” is a nearly universal term in structural steel design and construc-tion. However, it is all too common that requirements for steel-to-steel structuralbolting applications are mistakenly applied to steel-to-concrete anchorage applica-tions. Even worse, inclusion of the word “bolt” in the term has misled many an engi-neer to erroneously specify the anchorage material as ASTM A325 or A490, some-times even in applications when a hooked rod was specified. Fortunately, theirfriendly neighborhood fabricator knew that ASTM A449 and A354 provide therespective strength equivalents in a rod material and are available in the range oflengths that are commonly specified for anchorage devices.To differentiate between steel-to-steel structural bolting applications and steel-to-concrete anchorage applications, AISC has changed terminology to “anchor rod”.Don’t worry though if you still say “anchor bolt” from time to time, we know what youmean (and we still say it sometimes too!).

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