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Plant Layout

Plant Layout

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Published by Royal Projects
PLANT LAYOUT - MEANING, DEFINITION, OBJECTIVES, TYPES, PRINCIPLES, FACTORS INFULENCING.
MATERIAL MANAGEMENT- MEANING, DEFINITION, ADVANTAGES OF GOOD MATERIAL HANDLING, PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL HANDLING.
PLANT LAYOUT - MEANING, DEFINITION, OBJECTIVES, TYPES, PRINCIPLES, FACTORS INFULENCING.
MATERIAL MANAGEMENT- MEANING, DEFINITION, ADVANTAGES OF GOOD MATERIAL HANDLING, PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL HANDLING.

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Published by: Royal Projects on Feb 23, 2010
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09/28/2014

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UNIT – IIPLANT LAYOUT
MEANING:
The efficiency of production depends on how well the various machines; production facilitiesand employee’s amenities are located in a plant. Only the properly laid out plant can ensure thesmooth and rapid movement of material, from the raw material stage to the end product stage.Plant layout encompasses new layout as well as improvement in the existing layout.DEFINITION:A plant layout can be defined as follows:Plant layout refers to the arrangement of physical facilities such as machinery, equipment,furniture etc. with in the factory building in such a manner so as tohave quickest flow of material at the lowest cost and with the least amount of handling in processing the product from the receipt of material to the shipment of the finished product.According to Riggs, “the overall objective of plant layout is to design a physical arrangementthat most economically meets the required output – quantity and quality.”According to J. L. Zundi, “Plant layout ideally involves allocation of space andarrangement of equipment in such a manner that overall operating costs areminimized.
OBJECTIVES OF GOOD PLANT LAYOUT:
An efficient plant layout is one that can be instrumental in achieving thefollowing objectives:a) Proper and efficient utilization of available floor space b) To ensure that work proceeds from one point to another point without any delayc) Provide enough production capacity.d) Reduce material handling costse) Reduce hazards to personnelf) Utilise labour efficientlyg) Increase employee moraleh) Reduce accidentsi) Provide for volume and product flexibility j) Provide ease of supervision and control
 
k) Provide for employee safety and healthl) Allow ease of maintenancem) Allow high machine or equipment utilizationn) Improve productivity
TYPES OF LAYOUT
 plant layout may be of four types:(a) Product or line layout(b) Process or functional layout(c) Fixed position or location layout(d) Combined or group layout
(a)Product or line layout:
machines and equipments are arranged in one line depending upon the sequence of operations required for the product.
Also called as line layout
The materials move form one workstation to another sequentially without any backtracking or deviation.
machines are grouped in one sequence
the output of one machine becoming input of the next
The raw material moves very fast from one workstation to other stations with aminimum work in progress storage and material handling.
Advantages: Product layout provides the following benefits:
a) Low cost of material handling, due to straight and short route and absence of  backtracking b) Smooth and uninterrupted operationsc) Continuous flow of work 
 
d) Lesser investment in inventory and work in progresse) Optimum use of floor spacef) Shorter processing time or quicker outputg) Less congestion of work in the processh) Simple and effective inspection of work and simplified production controli) Lower cost of manufacturing per unit
Disadvantages: Product layout suffers from following drawbacks:
a. High initial capital investment in special purpose machine b. Heavy overhead chargesc. Breakdown of one machine will hamper the whole production processd. Lesser flexibility as specially laid out for particular product.
Suitability: Product layout is useful under following conditions:
1) Mass production of standardized products2) Simple and repetitive manufacturing process3) Operation time for different process is more or less equal4) Reasonably stable demand for the product5) Continuous supply of materials
(b)Process layout:
machines of a similar type are arranged together at one place.
The processor functional layout is followed from historical period.
It evolved from the handicraft method of production
The work has to be allocated to each department in such a way that no machines arehosen to do as many different job as possible
The work, which has to be done, is allocated to the machines according toLoading schedules with the object of ensuring that each machine is fully loaded
suitable for job order production involving non-repetitive processes and customer specifications and non-standardized products

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