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Maternal and Child Bullets

Maternal and Child Bullets

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Published by demoniac1420
hello.. i got this bullets from another website nursingbuzz.com.. i post it here to those who are looking for mcn it will help..
hello.. i got this bullets from another website nursingbuzz.com.. i post it here to those who are looking for mcn it will help..

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Published by: demoniac1420 on Feb 23, 2010
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08/28/2014

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Maternal & Child Nursing Bullets (NLE & NCLEX)
 
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Unlike false labor, true labor produces regular rhythmic contractions, abdominaldiscomfort, progressive descent of the fetus, bloody show, and progressive effacementand dilation of the cervix.To help a mother break the suction of her breast-feeding infant, the nurse should teachher to insert a finger at the corner of the infant’s mouth.
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Administering high levels of oxygen to a premature neonate can cause blindness as aresult of retrolental fibroplasia.
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Amniotomy is artificial rupture of the amniotic membranes.
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During pregnancy, weight gain averages 25 to 30 lb (11 to 13.5 kg).Rubella has a teratogenic effect on the fetus during the first
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trimester. It producesabnormalities in up to 40% of cases without interrupting the pregnancy.Immunity to rubella can be measured by a hemagglutination inhibition
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test (rubellatiter). This test identifies exposure to rubella infection and determines susceptibility in pregnant women. In a woman, a titer greater than 1:8 indicates immunity.When used to describe the degree of fetal descent during labor,
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floating means the presenting part isn’t engaged in the pelvic inlet, but is freely movable (ballotable) abovethe pelvic inlet.When used to describe the degree of fetal descent, engagement means
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when thelargest diameter of the presenting part has passed through the pelvic inlet.Fetal station indicates the location of the presenting part in
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relation to the ischial spine.It’s described as –1, –2, –3, –4, or –5 to indicate the number of centimeters above thelevel of the ischial spine; station –5 is at the pelvic inlet.Fetal station also is described as +1, +2, +3, +4, or +5 to indicate
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the number of centimeters it is below the level of the ischial spine; station 0 is at the level of the ischialspine.During the first stage of labor, the side-lying position usually
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provides the greatestdegree of comfort, although the patient may assume any comfortable position.During delivery, if the umbilical cord can’t be loosened and slipped
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from around theneonate’s neck, it should be clamped with two clamps and cut between the clamps.An Apgar score of 7 to 10 indicates no immediate distress, 4 to 6
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indicates moderate
 
distress, and 0 to 3 indicates severe distress.To elicit Moro’s reflex, the nurse holds the neonate in both hands
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and suddenly, butgently, drops the neonate’s head backward. Normally, the neonate abducts and extendsall extremities bilaterally and symmetrically, forms a C shape with the thumb andforefinger, and first adducts and then flexes the extremities.Pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia) is an increase in blood
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pressure of 30/15 mm Hg over baseline or blood pressure of 140/95 mm Hg on two occasions at least6 hours apart accompanied by edema and albuminuria after 20 weeks’ gestation.Positive signs of pregnancy include ultrasound evidence, fetal heart
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tones, and fetalmovement felt by the examiner (not usually present until 4 months’ gestation
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Goodell’s sign is softening of the cervix.
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Quickening, a presumptive sign of pregnancy, occurs between 16 and 19 weeks’gestation.
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Ovulation ceases during pregnancy.
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Any vaginal bleeding during pregnancy should be considered a complication until proven otherwise.To estimate the date of delivery using Nägele’s rule, the nurse
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counts backward 3months from the first day of the last menstrual period and then adds 7 days to this date.
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At 12 weeks’ gestation, the fundus should be at the top of the symphysis pubis.Cow’s milk shouldn’t be given to infants younger than age 1 because
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it has a lowlinoleic acid content and its protein is difficult for infants to digest.If jaundice is suspected in a neonate, the nurse should examine the
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infant under naturalwindow light. If natural light is unavailable, the nurse should examine the infant under awhite light.
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The three phases of a uterine contraction are increment, acme, and decrement.The intensity of a labor contraction can be assessed by the
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indentability of the uterinewall at the contraction’s peak. Intensity is graded as mild (uterine muscle is somewhattense), moderate (uterine muscle is moderately tense), or strong (uterine muscle is boardlike).Chloasma, the mask of pregnancy, is pigmentation of a circumscribed
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area of skin(usually over the bridge of the nose and cheeks) that occurs in some pregnant women.
 
The gynecoid pelvis is most ideal for delivery. Other types include
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platypelloid (flat),anthropoid (apelike), and android (malelike).
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Pregnant women should be advised that there is no safe level of alcohol intake.The frequency of uterine contractions, which is measured in minutes,
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is the time fromthe beginning of one contraction to the beginning of the next.Vitamin K is administered to neonates to prevent hemorrhagic
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disorders because aneonate’s intestine can’t synthesize vitamin K.Before internal fetal monitoring can be performed, a pregnant
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patient’s cervix must bedilated at least 2 cm, the amniotic membranes must be ruptured, and the fetus’s presenting part (scalp or buttocks) must be at station –1 or lower, so that a small electrodecan be attached.Fetal alcohol syndrome presents in the first 24 hours after birth and
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produces lethargy,seizures, poor sucking reflex, abdominal distention, and respiratory difficulty.Variability is any change in the fetal heart rate (FHR) from its
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normal rate of 120 to160 beats/minute. Acceleration is increased FHR; deceleration is decreased FHR.
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In a neonate, the symptoms of heroin withdrawal may begin several hours to 4 daysafter birth.
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In a neonate, the symptoms of methadone withdrawal may begin 7 days to severalweeks after birth.In a neonate, the cardinal signs of narcotic withdrawal include
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coarse, flappingtremors; sleepiness; restlessness; prolonged, persistent, high-pitched cry; and irritability.
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The nurse should count a neonate’s respirations for 1 full minute.
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Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) is used to treat neonates who are addicted to narcotics.
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The nurse should provide a dark, quiet environment for a neonate who is experiencingnarcotic withdrawal.In a premature neonate, signs of respiratory distress include nostril
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flaring, substernalretractions, and inspiratory grunting.Respiratory distress syndrome (hyaline membrane disease) develops in
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prematureinfants because their pulmonary alveoli lack surfactant.Whenever an infant is being put down to sleep, the parent or 
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caregiver should positionthe infant on the back. (Remember back to sleep.)

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