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Sheet Forming

Sheet Forming

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Published by: venkat_222123 on Feb 23, 2010
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ME477Fall 2004Kwon
1
1
SHEETMETALWORKING
1. Cutting Operation2. Bending Operation3. Drawing4. Other Sheet-metal Forming5. Dies and Presses6. Sheet-metal Operation7. Bending of Tube Stock
2
Introduction
Cutting and forming thin sheets of metal usuallyperformed as cold workingSheet metal = 0.4 (1/64) to 6 mm (1/4in) thickPlate stock > 6 mm thickAdvantage -High strength, good dimensionalaccuracy, good surface finish, economical massproduction (low cost).Cutting, bending, drawing
ε
2
ε
1
ε
1
ε
3
2
2
θθ=55°
Localized necking
γε
Because
ν=0.5
in plasticity
,ε
1
=-2
ε
2
=-2
ε
3
3
Sheet Metalworking Terminology
“Punch-and-die”
 –Tooling to perform cutting, bending, anddrawing
“Stamping press”
 –Machine tool that performs most sheet metaloperations
“Stampings
 –Sheet metal products
4
Sheet-metal Characteristics
Elongation –the capability of the sheet metal tostretch without necking and failure.Yield-point elongation
 –Lüeder’sbands on Low-carbon steels and Al-Mg alloys.Lüder’sbands can be eliminated by cold-rolling thethickness by 0.5-1.5%.
Anisotropy
 –Crystallographic and mechanical fiberinganisotropy
Grain Size effect on mechanical propertiesResidual Stress, Springbackand WrinklingTesting method
 –Cupping test –Forming Limit Diagram
Y
upper
Y
lower
5
Cutting operation
 –Plastic deformation –Penetration (1/3 thickness) –Fracture
ShearingShearing
using a machine called powershear or square shear.
Blanking
 –shearing a closed outline(desired part called blank)
Punching
 –sheared part is slag (or scrap)and remaining stock is a desired part
1. Cutting Operation
partpart
6
Cutting Operation
DiePunch
RolloverBurnishFracture zone
tc
Burr
 
ME477Fall 2004Kwon
2
7
Analysis
Clearance -4-8% but sometime 1% of thickness
 –Too small fracture does not occur requiring more force. –Too large Get pinched and cause an excessive burr
Clearance: c=a*t
 Metal groupa –1100S and 5052S aluminum alloys, all tempers0.045 –2024ST and 6061ST aluminum alloys;brass, soft cold rolled steel, soft stainless steel0.060 –Cold rolled steel, half hard; stainless steel,half hard and full hard0.075
8
Die, blank and punch size
Blank punch diameter=D
b
-2cBlank die diameter = D
b
Hole punch diameter=D
h
Hole die diameter = D
h
+2cAngular clearance of 0.25
o
to 1.5
o
Cutting forces:
F=S*t*L=0.7*TS*t*Lwhere S= Shear strengtht=thicknessL=length of cutting edgeTS =Ultimate tensile strength
D
h
D
b
For a round blank,For a round hole,cc
Angular clearance
9
Other Cutting Operations
Cutoff and PartingSlotting, Perforating and NotchingTrimming, Shaving and Fine Blanking
ShavingFine Blanking
Trimming
partscrappartpart
10
2. Bending Operations
V-bendingEdge Bending
11
Analysis of Bending I
Bend Allowance -
length of a neutral axis
K
ba
=0.33 if
R<2t 
and K
ba
=0.5 if
2t 
Springback
( )
StretchEstimatetoFactorA ThicknessStock RadiusBendAngleBend3602
====+=
baba
 R A R A BA
π  
toolbendingtheof angleincluded partmetalsheettheof angleincluded
'''''
===
bbb
 A A A A ASB
AA’ 
12
Analysis of Bending II
Compensate for spring back
 –Overbending –Bottoming squeezing the part at the end ofthe stroke
Bending force:
 –K
bf
=1.33 for V-bending –K
bf
=0.33 for Edge-bending –w= width of part –t=stock thickness –D=die opening dimension
( )
 Dwt TS
bf 
2
=
DDw
 
ME477Fall 2004Kwon
3
13
Other Bending Operation
FlangingHemmingSeamingCurlingChannel,U-bendingAir bending,Offset bending,Corrugating andTube forming
14
3. Drawing
Basic drawing operation –a cup-shapepart
D
p
D
b
D
p
FF
h
F
h
cc
15
Detail Steps of Drawing
F
v
F
v
vF
v
F
v
vF
v
F
v
vF
v
F
v
vF
v
 
F
v
v
1. Initial Contact2. Bending3. Straightening4. Friction &Compression5. Final Shape
16
Analysis of Drawing
Measure of Drawing
 –Drawing ratio:feasible if DR<2 –Reduction:feasible if r<0.5 –Crude measures of the severity of a deepdrawing operation
Drawing Forces:Max at 1/3 lengthHolding Force:
 pb
 D D DR
=
b pb
 D D D
=
( )
 ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ =
7.0
 pb p
 D DTS D
π  
( )
[ ]
22
22.2015.0
 pbh
R D D
++=
π  
17
Other Drawing Operation
RedrawingDrawing without a BlankholderNot cylindrical cupsDefects (Fig. 20.24)
 –Wrinkling in the flange –Wrinkling in the wall –Tearing –Earinganistropyin sheet metal –Surface scratch
18
Forming-Limit Diagram
A grid pattern of circles, typically 2.5 to 5mm in diameter,produced by electrochemical or photoprinting.After drawing, the circles are observed for failure.The major strain is on the major direction and magnitudeof strain
Minor strain
   M  a   j  o  r  s   t  r  a   i  n
Al alloy
High Strength SteelLow Carbon Steel
0
PureshearSimpleTensionEqualbiaxial
Major AxisMajor AxisMinor AxisMinor Axis
8080-60120
Safe
 
Failure
600

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