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Organizational Change

Organizational Change

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Published by Arafa1987

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Published by: Arafa1987 on Feb 23, 2010
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01/13/2011

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Ch. 14: Managing Chang
Whether to chang,When and How.1.
Change At Work 
.1.1.
The Natur of Chang
– 1.1.1.Chang-The Whole organigation tends to be affected by chang in any part of it.1.1.2.Chang is a human as well as atchnical problem,Equilibrium.Introduce.1.1.3.Proactive and reactive Roles – Part of the manager’s role is to restore andmaintain the group equilibrium.Reactive.
2.Responses to change
2.1.Experiments relating lighting to productivity- It operates through each employee’sattiudes to produce.2.2.How Individual Attitudes Affect Response to Change – The way that people feelabout a change is one factor that determines how they will respond to it,Personalhistory,enviroment itsel, Nonlogical,Ineffective means of trying to modifyfeelings.2.3.The Howthorne Effect .Figure 14-1
Unified social response to change
:-Stimulus- -I
 
ProbableIndividualResponses(Attitudes)Actual response
PersonalHistories
ChangeWork Environ
Absenteeism
Strike
Demands
IndifferenceHarder work 
Sabotape
Collective(social)demaands
Person ABCDEF
 
When people areobserved,or believe that someone cares about them,they act differently.2.4.Group Response to Change- Homeostasis ,Backsliding.3.
Cost and Benefits
.Benefits greater that costs.3.1.Psychic costs-People will react in different and widely varying ways to change.
4.Resistance to Change
Why resistance occurs.4.1.Nature and effects-Depending on how skillfully it is managed to minimize resistanceChain-reaction efffect
4.2.Reasons for Resistance
Resistance stems form nature of change,method used,and perceptions of inequity. Nature of the change itself.,Method,Someone else appeare to gain the benefits of the change.Elisabeth Kubler-Ross,in her book Death and Dying:-Form resistance toacceptancc.
4.3.Types of Resistance
4.3.1.Logical Resistance - Rational Resistance4.3.2.Psychological Resistance – Emotional ResistanceFigure 14-2
Types fo resistance toChange among  Employees
- -II
 
Logical,rational objections
Time required to adjudst
Extra effort to relearn
Possibility of less desirable conditions,such as skill downgrading
Economic costs of change
Questioned technical feasibility of change
Psychological, emotional attitudes
Fear of the unknown
Low tolerance of change
Dislike of management or other change agent
Lack of trust in other 
 Need for security,desire for status quo
Sociological factors,group interests
Political coalitions
Opposing group values
Parochial,narrow outlook 
Vested interests
Desire to retain existing friendships
 
4.3.3Sociological rtesistance4.3.4Implications of Resistance5.Possible Benefits of Resistance All bad.6.
Implementing Chang successfully
Dynamic environments are now the norm.Dose anybody care.6.1.Transformational Lesdership and Change.6.1.1.
Transformational leader
.6.1.2.Creating Vision.6.1.3.Communicating Charisma6.1.4.Stimulating Learning – Double - loop learners challenge their ownthinking,Single- loop learning.
6.2.Three stages in change
6.2.1Unfreezing6.2.2Changing6.2.3Refreezinz
6.3.Manipulating the Forces
EquilibriumSupporting and restraining forcesFigure 14-3
 A model of the Equilibrium state and Change process
- -III
 
Employeebehavior
 
Restraining forcesSupporting forcesTimeIneffectiveenessEffectiveness
Point at which cgange occurs(Length of the vertical line indicatesstrength of a force)

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