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Fuzzy Ontology, Fuzzy Description Logics and Fuzzy-OWL

Fuzzy Ontology, Fuzzy Description Logics and Fuzzy-OWL

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Fuzzy Ontology, Fuzzy Description Logics and Fuzzy-OWL
Fuzzy Ontology, Fuzzy Description Logics and Fuzzy-OWL

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02/11/2011

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Fuzzy Ontology, Fuzzy Description Logics andFuzzy-OWL
Silvia Calegari and Davide Ciucci
Dipartimento di Informatica Sistemistica e ComunicazioneUniversit`a di Milano – BicoccaVia Bicocca degli Arcimboldi 8, I–20126 Milano (Italia)
{
calegari,ciucci
}
@disco.unimib.it
Abstract.
The conceptual formalism supported by an ontology is not sufficientfor handling vague information that is commonly found in many application do-mains. We describe how to introduce fuzziness in an ontology. To this aim wedefine a framework consisting of a fuzzy ontology based on Fuzzy DescriptionLogic and Fuzzy–Owl.
1 Introduction
In recent years ontologies played a major role in knowledge representation. For exam-ple, applications of the Semantic Web [1] (i.e., e-commerce, knowledge management,web portals, etc.) are based on ontologies. In the Semantic Web an ontology is a formalconceptualization of a domain of interest, shared among heterogeneous applications. Itconsists of 
entities, attributes, relationships
and
axioms
to provide a common under-standing of the real world [2, 3]. With the support of ontologies users and systems cancommunicatethroughan easy informationexchangeand integration.Unfortunately,theconceptual formalism supported by the ontology structure is not sufficient for handlingimprecise information that is commonly found in many application domains. Indeed,humans use linguistic adverbs and adjectives to describe their requests. For instance, auser can be interested in finding topics about “an expensive item” or “a fun holiday”using web portals. The problem that emerges is how to represent these non-crisp datawithin the ontology definition.Fuzzy sets theory, introduced by L. A. Zadeh [4], allows to deal with imprecise andvague data, so that a possible solution is to incorporate fuzzy logic into ontologies. In[5] we gave a first definition of fuzzy ontology. Here we present a better formalizationwhich can be mapped to a suitable Fuzzy Description Logic. Let us note that also[6]gives a formalization of a fuzzy ontology, but it does not investigate its relationshipto Fuzzy DL and Fuzzy–OWL. This is of great importance due to the central role thatDescription Logic and OWL play in the Semantic Web.Further,
SHOIN 
(
D
)
is the theoretical counterpart of the OWL Description Logic.Thus, in the current paper, we define a fuzzy extension of the OWL language con-sidering fuzzy
SHOIN 
(
D
)
[7]. We have extended the syntax and semantic of fuzzy
SHOIN 
(
D
)
with the possibility to add a concept modifier to a relation and introduc-ing a new constructor which enable us to define a subset of objects belongingto a givenconcept with a membership value greater or lower that a fixed value.
F. Masulli, S. Mitra, and G. Pasi (Eds.): WILF 2007, LNAI 4578, pp. 118–126,2007.c
Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007
 
Fuzzy Ontology, Fuzzy Description Logics and Fuzzy-OWL 119
Our idea is to map the fuzzy ontology definition (presented in this paper) intothe corresponding Fuzzy-OWL language through the syntax and semantic of fuzzy
SHOIN 
(
D
)
. Finally, we propose an extension of the KAON project [8] in order todirectly define some axioms of the fuzzy ontology through graph-based and tree-basedmetaphors.
2 Fuzzy Ontology
In this section, we formally introduce the notion of Fuzzy Ontology. Our definition isbased on the vision of an ontologyfor the Semantic Web where knowledgeis expressedin a DL-based ontology. Thus, a fuzzy ontology is defined in order to correspond to aDL knowledge base as we will give in Section3[9].
Definition 1.
A Fuzzy Ontology is defined as the tuple
O
F
=
{
I
,
C
,
R
,
F
,
A
}
where:-
I
is the set of individuals, also called instances of the concepts.-
C
is the set of concepts. Each concept 
C
is a fuzzy set on the domain of instances
:
I
[0
,
1]
. The set of entities of the fuzzy ontology will be indicated by
E
 , i.e.,
E
=
C
I
.-
R
is the set of relations. Each
R
R
is a n-ary fuzzy relation on the domain of enti-ties,
R
:
E
n
[0
,
1]
. A special role is held by the taxonomic relation
T  
:
E
2
[0
,
1]
which identifies the fuzzy subsumption relation among the entities.-
F
is the set of the fuzzy relations on the set of entities
E
and a specific domain con-tained in
D
=
{
integer,string,...
}
. In detail, they are n-ary functions such that eachelement 
F
is a relation
:
E
(
n
1)
×
[0
,
1]
where
D
.-
A
is the set of axioms expressed in a proper logical language, i.e., predicates that constrain the meaning of concepts, individuals, relationships and functions.
Let us note that any concept and any relation is fuzzy. In particular the taxonomic re-lationship
T  
(
i,j
)
indicates that the child
j
is a conceptual specification of the par-ent
i
with a certain degree. For example, in an ontology of the “animals” an expertcan have some problems on how to insert the “platypus” instance, since it is in parta “mammal” and in part an “oviparous”. Using the fuzzy subsumption relationships
T  
(
mammal,platypus
) =
x
and
T  
(
oviparous,platypus
) =
y
, where
x,y
are twoarbitrary fuzzy values, it is possible to declare partial relations in order to better specifytheontologyknowledge.Thesame holdsfornon-taxonomicrelationships.Forinstance,a way to describe the fact “Paul lives sometimes in London and sometimes in Rome”could be
Lives
(
Paul,London
) = 0
.
6
,
Lives
(
Paul,Rome
) = 0
.
5
.Ofcourse,sincefuzzysets areasoundextensionofclassicalbooleansets,itis alwayspossible to define crisp (i.e, non-fuzzy) concepts (resp., relations) by using only valuesin the set
{
0
,
1
}
.A particular interest in our work is held by the non-taxonomic fuzzy relationship“correlation” defined as
Corr
:
E
2
[0
,
1]
(see [10, 11]). The correlation is a bi-nary and symmetric fuzzy relationship that allows to specify the semantic link amongthe entities of the fuzzy ontology. The values of correlation between two objects canbe assigned not only by the expert of the domain, but also considering the knowledgebased on how the two objects are used together (for instance, in the queries or in the
 
120 S. Calegari and D. Ciucci
documents definition). For example, it is possible to state that “sun and yellow” aresemantically correlated with value
0
.
8
, i.e.,
Corr
(
sun,yellow
) = 0
.
8
. Furthermore, itis possible to have the special case where an entity
x
is itself correlated. For instance,we can affirm that
Corr
(
sun,sun
) = 0
.
3
. In the implementation phase, for the fuzzyrelationship
Corr
is necessary to define the attribute “count”that allows to storage howmany times the entities are searched together.
Properties of relations.
In the fuzzy ontology the properties on the relations we areinterestedinaresymmetryandtransitivity.Givenafuzzyontology
O
F
,abinaryrelation
R
:
E
×
E
[0
,
1]
is
Symmetric
if 
i,j
E
,
R
(
i,j
) =
R
(
 j,i
)
and
Transitive
if 
i,j
E
,
sup
k
E
{
t
(
R
(
i,k
)
,R
(
k,j
))
}
R
(
i,j
)
, where
t
is a t-norm.Further,given abinaryrelation
R
:
E
×
E
[0
,
1]
,its
inverse
relationis definedas
R
(
i,j
) :=
R
(
 j,i
)
.Thus, we have that a relation is symmetric if and only if 
i,j
E
,
R
(
i,j
) =
R
(
i,j
)
.
3 Fuzzy Description Logic
Our next step in the description of a complete framework for a fuzzy ontology is thedefinition of a fuzzy description logic. Let us note that in literature there are severalapproaches to this topic. The most complete and coherent one is [7]. Stoilos et. al[12] havealsopresentedaFuzzy-OWLlanguageversionbasedonlyon
SHOIN 
discardingdatatypes and concept modifiers. We take inspiration mainly from Straccia’s work [7],adding a complete formalization of fuzzy axioms and introducing some differences:- we add the possibility to have fuzzy relations with modifiers, and not only modifiedfuzzyconcepts.Thiscanbehelpfultoexpressasentenceas“thereisa
strong
correlationbetween sun and yellow” where strong is a modifier and “correlation” a fuzzy relation;- we give a different semantic of cardinality restriction;- we adda newpossibility to define a concept:
α
(andsimilarly
α
,
<
α
,
>
α
) whichenableus to define, for instance,the fuzzyset of “peoplewhich are tall with value lowerthan 0.3” or the “wines which have a dry taste with a value at least of 0.6”.Decidability and computability issues of these modifications will be investigated ina forthcoming paper.
3.1 Syntax
The alphabet of the logic is
(
C,R
a
,R
c
,
a
,
c
)
where
is the set of concept names,
R
a
(resp.,
R
c
) is the set of abstract (resp., concrete) role names,
a
(resp.,
c
) the set of abstract (resp., concrete) individual names. All these sets are non-empty and they arepair-wise disjoint. A concretedomainis a pair
Δ
D
,Φ
D
where
Δ
D
is an interpretationdomain and
Φ
D
the set of concrete fuzzy relations
 p
on the domain
Δ
D
with interpreta-tion
p
D
:
Δ
nD
[0
,
1]
. The set of modifier names is denoted as
and to each element
m
is associated its interpretation
m
: [0
,
1]
[0
,
1]
.Finally, using the following notation:
A
is a concept,
R
R
a
an abstract rela-tion name,
R
c
a concrete relation name,
R
a
an abstract simple relation name(a relation is simple if it is not transitive and it has not transitive sub-relations),
m
a modifier name,
p
Φ
D
a concrete predicate name,
a
a
an abstract instance name,

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