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Transport Quartermaster Manual_november 1944

Transport Quartermaster Manual_november 1944

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Published by manuals&manuals
THE WAR of 19141918
was fought on battle line approximately 600
miles long, extending through Belgium and France. After the entry of
the United States in the war, the furnishing of troops and supplies to this
battle line had as its most difficult problem the menace of submarines. It
was possible to bring ships to the various ports and unload them with no
danger of air attacks and it was also possible to transport troops and equipment
from the debarkation areas to the battle positions with relative safety from
any form of attack.
Inthe present war the problem is entirely different. Our battle lines cover
a very substantial part of the globe from the standpoint of area. The greater
part of enemy territory against which an attack may be launched is
ed either by neutral countries or water. Our enemy in the Pacific Theater is
spread out over thousands of islands reasonably secure on all sides because
we must approach him by water. We cannot expect to unload our ships
carrying men and their equipment and supplies in any port in enemy held
territory, rather we must unload on the relatively insecure beaches. At such
time as we do approach his positions for the purpose of engaging in combat,
it is necessary that we have all the men in one force so that we may close with
him and carry through the operation successfully. This problem of bringing
the armed forces of this country and allied countries into contact with die
enemy has necessitated the formation of an Amphibious Force.
The requirements in the assembling of troops and materiel, and shipping
which must carry them for even a simple operation, should convince anyone
of the intricate nature of the problem. The ships which carry the troops to
the point of operation must be organized in their manner of loading to such
an extent that when the troops debark, they will have with them all the
equipment needed to execute the assault.
Troops engaged inamphibious operations are carried to the general vicinity
of the point of attack in large transports which have been designed or
remodeled to suit the particular purpose of carrying combat troops and their
equipment.A portion of the supplies needed for the operation is loaded on the transport with the troops, and the balance is brought on cargo vessels
which are equipped with high speed cargo handling gear and as many landing craft as can be carried. Allof these ships, both the transports and the cargo
vessels, are assembled ingroups and moved to an area close to the point at
which the troops are to be debarked. As this point is usually eight to twelve
miles offshore,
it is necessary that the troops and their initial supplies be
moved to the beach by means of landing craft and amphibious vehicles.
The necessity for debarking the troops in a definite order, and for giving
them a continuous flow of ammunition, water, rations, and gasoline requires
a great deal of prior planning. For this purpose a Troop Transport
master (TQM) is assigned to each cargo or transport vessel. It is his function to properly load the ship so that personnel and materiel can be
unloaded according to established priorities. His task is not a simple one.
He must be familiar with the tactical plan and must know the organization
and equipment of the units which he is to load aboard the ship.
Any well ordered course inmilitary tactics invariably includes instruction
in a subject termed "terrain appreciation." This subject pertains to the art
of recognizing aids and avoiding pitfalls in the medium in which combat
takes place. It applies equally to the infantryman, the artilleryman, and
to the TQM. Transport loading is not a course in military tactics, but rather
an application of the principle of "terrain appreciation" to the medium in
which the TQM works; namely, transport ships. The facility with which
all of the favorable characteristics of the ship are utilized is a direct measure
of the TQM's ability. Each ship differs from every other ship, just as each
bit of terrain
THE WAR of 19141918
was fought on battle line approximately 600
miles long, extending through Belgium and France. After the entry of
the United States in the war, the furnishing of troops and supplies to this
battle line had as its most difficult problem the menace of submarines. It
was possible to bring ships to the various ports and unload them with no
danger of air attacks and it was also possible to transport troops and equipment
from the debarkation areas to the battle positions with relative safety from
any form of attack.
Inthe present war the problem is entirely different. Our battle lines cover
a very substantial part of the globe from the standpoint of area. The greater
part of enemy territory against which an attack may be launched is
ed either by neutral countries or water. Our enemy in the Pacific Theater is
spread out over thousands of islands reasonably secure on all sides because
we must approach him by water. We cannot expect to unload our ships
carrying men and their equipment and supplies in any port in enemy held
territory, rather we must unload on the relatively insecure beaches. At such
time as we do approach his positions for the purpose of engaging in combat,
it is necessary that we have all the men in one force so that we may close with
him and carry through the operation successfully. This problem of bringing
the armed forces of this country and allied countries into contact with die
enemy has necessitated the formation of an Amphibious Force.
The requirements in the assembling of troops and materiel, and shipping
which must carry them for even a simple operation, should convince anyone
of the intricate nature of the problem. The ships which carry the troops to
the point of operation must be organized in their manner of loading to such
an extent that when the troops debark, they will have with them all the
equipment needed to execute the assault.
Troops engaged inamphibious operations are carried to the general vicinity
of the point of attack in large transports which have been designed or
remodeled to suit the particular purpose of carrying combat troops and their
equipment.A portion of the supplies needed for the operation is loaded on the transport with the troops, and the balance is brought on cargo vessels
which are equipped with high speed cargo handling gear and as many landing craft as can be carried. Allof these ships, both the transports and the cargo
vessels, are assembled ingroups and moved to an area close to the point at
which the troops are to be debarked. As this point is usually eight to twelve
miles offshore,
it is necessary that the troops and their initial supplies be
moved to the beach by means of landing craft and amphibious vehicles.
The necessity for debarking the troops in a definite order, and for giving
them a continuous flow of ammunition, water, rations, and gasoline requires
a great deal of prior planning. For this purpose a Troop Transport
master (TQM) is assigned to each cargo or transport vessel. It is his function to properly load the ship so that personnel and materiel can be
unloaded according to established priorities. His task is not a simple one.
He must be familiar with the tactical plan and must know the organization
and equipment of the units which he is to load aboard the ship.
Any well ordered course inmilitary tactics invariably includes instruction
in a subject termed "terrain appreciation." This subject pertains to the art
of recognizing aids and avoiding pitfalls in the medium in which combat
takes place. It applies equally to the infantryman, the artilleryman, and
to the TQM. Transport loading is not a course in military tactics, but rather
an application of the principle of "terrain appreciation" to the medium in
which the TQM works; namely, transport ships. The facility with which
all of the favorable characteristics of the ship are utilized is a direct measure
of the TQM's ability. Each ship differs from every other ship, just as each
bit of terrain

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Published by: manuals&manuals on Feb 24, 2010
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12/27/2012

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FOREWORD
The 
Transport
Quartermaster
Manual
is
intended:
1.
As
a
guide
for
the
instruction
of
personnel.
2.
To
provide
a
ready
reference
to
pertinent
datacontained
in
numerous
publications.
3.
To
developand
prescribe
uniform
methods
of
procedure.
4.
To
make
for
mutualunderstanding,
closer
cooperationand
increased
efficiency.
ThisManual
is
based
upon
the
basic
principles
laid
down
in
the
Landing
OperationDoctrine,
U.
S.
Navy,
(FTP
167),
the
Ship
to
Shore
Movement
(FTP
211),
the
Transport
Doctrine,
Amphibious
Forces,
U.
S.
Pacific
Fleet,
andthe
results
ot
experiences
and
expen-"
mentations
byArmy
and
Marine
Divisions,
andthe
various
Amphibious
Training
Centers
in
this
area.
Recommendations
for
the
revision
of,
or
addition
to,
any
portion
of
thispublication
are
solicited.

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