is entropy calculated relative to the absolute reference point determined by the third law of thermodynamics.
Absolute or specific humidity
(also called humidity ratio) is the mass of water vapour present in a unit mass of dry air; that is, it is the ratio of themass of water vapour to the mass of dry air in atmospheric air.
is the actual pressure at a given position and it is measured relative to absolute vacuum (i.e., absolute zero pressure).Throughout this text, the pressure
will denote absolute pressure unless specified otherwise.
Absorption refrigeration systems
involve the absorption of a refrigerant by a transport medium. The most widely used absorption refrigeration system isthe ammonia-water system, where ammonia (NH
) serves as the refrigerant and water (H
O) as the transport medium.Absorption refrigeration systems are economically attractive when there is a source of inexpensive heat energy at atemperature of 100 to 200 °C. Some examples of inexpensive heat energy sources include geothermal energy, solar energy, and waste heat from cogeneration or process steam plants, and even natural gas when it is available at arelatively low price.
Adiabatic flame or adiabatic combustion temperature
is the maximum temperature the products of combustion will reach in the limiting case of no heat loss to thesurroundings during the combustion process. The adiabatic flame temperature attains its maximum value whencomplete combustion occurs with the theoretical amount of air.
is a process during which there is no heat transfer. The word adiabatic comes from the Greek word
, whichmeans not to be passed.
Adiabatic saturation process
is the process in which a steady stream of unsaturated air of unknown specific humidity is passed through a longinsulated channel that contains a pool of water. As the air flows over the water, some water will evaporate and mix withthe airstream. The moisture content of air will increase during this process, and its temperature will decrease, since partof the latent heat of vaporization of the water that evaporates will come from the air. If the channel is long enough, theairstream will exit as saturated air (100 percent relative humidity) at the exit temperature.
Adiabatic saturation temperature
is the exit temperature that air attains in the adiabatic saturation process.
is a section added between the turbine and the nozzle of an aircraft turbine engine where additional fuel is injected intothe oxygen-rich combustion gases leaving the turbine. As a result of this added energy, the exhaust gases leave at ahigher velocity, providing extra thrust for short takeoffs or combat conditions.
are refrigerators whose refrigerated space is a room or a building instead of the food compartment.
Air-fuel ratio AF
is a frequently used quantity in the analysis of combustion processes to quantify the amounts of fuel and air. It isusually expressed on a mass basis and is defined as the ratio of the mass of air to the mass of fuel for a combustion process.
Air-source heat pumps
use the cold outside air as the heat source in winter.
reduce the analysis of gas power cycles to a manageable level by utilizing the following approximations: