•Make sure the general contractoror construction manager indicateswho is responsible for any “greyareas”
such as loose lintels, masonryanchors, elevator sill angles, elevatorsheave beams, fastenings for precastconcrete spandrel beams, etc. Unlessthe responsibility is specifically dele-gated, it is likely that the cost of these items will be included in thebids of multiple contractors, whichmeans the owner will pay more thanonce for the same article.
•Don’t require the steel sub-con-tractor to perform work normallydone by other trades
, such asinstalling masonry anchors, ceiling hangers, toilet partition supports,window wall supports, etc.Information required to perform thiswork is often slow to develop, result-ing in needless delay to the fabrica-tor. The most efficient steel jobs arethose on which the fabricator anderector are allowed to concentrate onthe steel frame while unencumberedby the intricacies pertinent to othertrades. This reduces coordinationrequirements and allows the steelframework to be turned over to theother trades in far less time thanwould otherwise be possible.
•Consider the use of cantileveredrafters and purlins
to save weighton roof design
(see figure 3)
•Do not design for minimumweight alone.
The savings in materi-al cost will often be negated by theneed for more members, more con-nections and more costly shop workand field erection.
•Excessively stringent mill, fabri-cation and erection tolerancesbeyond state-of-the-art construc-tion practices will reduce thenumber of bidders and raise thecost of the project.
ASTM A6 toler-ances and those established by AWSand AISC have served the industrywell for many years and should beadhered to except under extraordi-nary circumstances where some spe-cial condition dictates a more stricttreatment.
•Design the proper type of high-strength bolt value.
The correctapplication of each type is well-docu-mented in the current bolt specifica-tions. Do not specify “slip-critical”bolt values for the pur-pose of obtaining anextra factor of safety.The trend in recentyears is toward the useof “snug-tight” boltsand bearing values.
•Allow the use of tension control(twist-off) high-strength bolts.
Thesebolts are as reliable asother methods of mea-suring bolt tension andsave labor costs in bothshop and field.
•Where possible,specify fillet weldsrather than groovewelds.
Groove weldsare more costlybecause of the jointpreparation requiredand the generallygreater volume of weld(see figure 4).
•Use single-passwelds where possible.
This involves keeping fillet welds to a maxi-mum of 5/16”.
•Favor the horizon-tal and flat weldingpositions.
These weldsare easier and quickerto make and are gener-ally of high quality
(see figure 5)
•Don’t specify more weld than isnecessary.
Over-welding createsexcessive heat, which may contributeto warping and shrinkage of themembers resulting in costly straight-ening expense.
•Grant the fabricator the optionof eliminating some columnsplices.
The cost of one columnsplice equals the cost of approxi-mately 500 lbs. of A992 steel. Thefabricator should study the situationcarefully before he decides to omitthe column splice as the resulting column may be too long for safeerection. Multi-tier columns shouldbe designed to have splices every twoor four floors. Three-floor columnsare to be avoided due to erection dif-ficulties. The higher up in a tallbuilding, the less desirable it is to use
Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6
four-floor columns due to higherwind speed and difficulties in guying.
•Avoid designing column splicesat mid-story height.
These are oftentoo high for the erector to reachwithout rigging a float or scaffold. If the splice can be located no higherthan 5’ above the tops of the steelbeams, it saves the expense of theextra rigging and still will be in aregion of the column where bending forces are relatively low (
•Except where dictated by seismicconsiderations, do not design col-umn splices to “develop the fullbending strength of the governingcolumn size.”
Seldom is the splicelocated at the point of maximumbending and seldom do the bending stresses result in a condition that