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Biogas Digest Volume 1

Biogas Digest Volume 1

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Published by aldipdg
Build Your Own BiogasPlant
Build Your Own BiogasPlant

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Published by: aldipdg on Feb 25, 2010
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11/22/2012

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Biogas Digest 
Volume IBiogas Basics
Information and Advisory Serviceon Appropriate Technology
 
1
Imprint
This information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on theorder of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT)for the ISAT Website in a collaborative effort of the following institutions and individuals:
Concept and contents:
Werner Kossmann, Uta Pönitz
 Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT)
GATE in Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), GmbH (German Agency for Technical Cooperation)Post Box 5180 D-65726 EschbornFederal Republic of GermanyTelephone: +49 6196/79-0Fax: +49 6196/797352 E-mail: gate-isat@gtz.de
Stefan Habermehl
 Household Energy Appropriate Technologies (HEAT) GmbH 
 Limburger Straße 29 D-61479 GlashüttenFederal Republic of GermanyTelephone: +49 6174 964077 Fax: +49 6174 61209 E-mail: heatinternational@t-online.de
Thomas Hoerz, Pedro Krämer, B. Klingler, C. Kellner, Thomas Wittur, F. v. Klopotek, A.Krieg, H. Euler
 Naturgerechte Technologien, Bau- und Wirtschaftsberatung (TBW) GmbH 
 Baumweg 1060316 Frankfurt Tel.: 069 943507-0Fax: 069 943507-11 E-mail: tbw@pop-frankfurt.com
Design:
Utz Dornberger 
Stöckelstr. 2004347 LeipzigTel.: 0341 2334980 E-mail: utz@imb-jena.de
 
2
Table of Contents
Biogas Basics......................................................................................................................................4
What is biogas?...............................................................................................................................................4Biogas and the global carbon cycle ................................................................................................................4Biology of methanogenesis.............................................................................................................................4Substrate and material balance of biogas production......................................................................................4Composition and properties of biogas ............................................................................................................4Utilization.......................................................................................................................................................5The Benefits of Biogas Technology ...............................................................................................................5The Costs of Biogas Technology....................................................................................................................6Fuel and Fertilizer...........................................................................................................................................6Public and Political Awareness.......................................................................................................................6
History of Biogas Technology...........................................................................................................7
Europe/Germany.............................................................................................................................................7China and India...............................................................................................................................................7German promotion of biogas technology in the south....................................................................................7Outlook...........................................................................................................................................................8
Microbiology......................................................................................................................................9
The three steps of biogas production..............................................................................................................9Hydrolysis.......................................................................................................................................................9Acidification...................................................................................................................................................9Methane formation........................................................................................................................................10Symbiosis of bacteria....................................................................................................................................10
Parameters and process optimisation............................................................................................11
Substrate temperature ...................................................................................................................................11Available nutrient .........................................................................................................................................11Retention time...............................................................................................................................................12pH value........................................................................................................................................................12Nitrogen inhibition and C/N ratio.................................................................................................................12Biodegradable material.................................................................................................................................13Substrate solids content and agitation...........................................................................................................14Inhibitory factors ..........................................................................................................................................14
The Physical Appearance of Different Types of Biogas Plants....................................................16
Balloon plants...............................................................................................................................................16Fixed-dome plants ........................................................................................................................................17Floating-drum plants.....................................................................................................................................17
Biogas Appliances............................................................................................................................19
Gas cookers/stoves........................................................................................................................................19Biogas lamps.................................................................................................................................................20Radiant heaters..............................................................................................................................................22Incubators .....................................................................................................................................................22Refrigerators.................................................................................................................................................23Biogas-fueled engines...................................................................................................................................23
Organic Fertilizer from Biogas Plants...........................................................................................26
Organic substances in fertilizers...................................................................................................................26Nutrients and soil organisms.........................................................................................................................26Reduction of soil erosion..............................................................................................................................26
The Contribution of Biogas Technology to Conservation and Development.............................28
Conservation.................................................................................................................................................28Development.................................................................................................................................................28
Limitations of Biogas Technology..................................................................................................30Biogas - Framework Conditions.....................................................................................................32
Social aspects in the planning process..........................................................................................................32Social and political aspects in the dissemination process.............................................................................32Specific regional developments....................................................................................................................32

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