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Rimsko  pravo  

Rimsko  pravo  

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Published by pravnica

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Published by: pravnica on Feb 25, 2010
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05/11/2014

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1\ue000
RIMSKO\ue000PRAVO\ue000
\ue000ubi\ue000societas\ue000ibi\ue000ius\ue000\u2013\ue000kjer\ue000je\ue000dru\u017eba\ue000je\ue000pravo\ue000\ue000\ue000pravo\ue000je\ue000nek\ue000nepogre\u0161ljiv\ue000element\ue000du\u017ebe.\ue000To\ue000pravo\ue000izhaja\ue000iz\ue000

dru\u017ebe,\ue000se\ue000pa\ue000vanjo\ue000vra\u010da\ue000in\ue000jo\ue000izoblikuje\ue000\u2013\ue000gre\ue000za\ue000nekak\u0161no\ue000delovanje.\ue000Ker\ue000je\ue000pravo\ue000izraz\ue000dru\u017ebenih odnosov, lahko\ue000pravo\ue000razumemo\ue000samo\ue000\u010de\ue000poznamo\ue000dru\u017ebene\ue000odnose\ue000v\ue000dru\u017ebi\ue000\u2013\ue000ne\ue000moremo\ue000ga\ue000obravnavati\ue000lo\u010deno\ue000od\ue000 dru\u017ebenih\ue000razmer\ue000v\ue000katerih\ue000je\ue000nastalo.\ue000\u0160ele\ue000to\ue000osvetli\ue000pravo v njegovem to\u010dnem pomenu.\ue000

ZGODOVINSKI\ue000UVOD\ue000
1 Zgodovinsko\ue000ozadje\ue000

Sredi\ue0002.\ue000tiso\u010dletja\ue000p.n.\u0161.\ue000se\ue000pojavijo\ue000Italiki.\ue000Del\ue000njih\ue000so\ue000bili\ue000Latinci,\ue000poseben\ue000rod\ue000latincev\ue000pa\ue000so\ue000bili\ue000Rimljani,\ue000ki\ue000se\ue000 naselijo\ue000ob\ue000reki\ue000Tiberi.\ue000\u017de\ue000okoli\ue000l.\ue0001000\ue000p.n.\u0161.\ue000je\ue000okoli\ue000Tibere ve\u010d naselij, ki pa \u0161e niso zdru\u017eena. Rim naj bi nastal okoli\ue000755/54\ue000p.n.\u0161.\ue000lega\ue000mesta\ue000je\ue000taka,\ue000da\ue000onemogo\u010da\ue000obrambo\ue000\ue000\ue000razvijejo\ue000se\ue000v\ue000borbeno\ue000ljudstvo.\ue000Rim\ue000kmalu\ue000 pade\ue000pod\ue000Etru\u0161\u010dane,\ue000etru\u0161\u010danski\ue000kralji\ue000vladajo\ue000Rimu\ue000vse do leta 508 p.n.\u0161.\ue000\ue000obdobje\ue000sedmih\ue000kraljev.\ue000Rimljani\ue000 iz\u017eenejo\ue000zadnjega\ue000etru\u0161\u010danskega\ue000kralja\ue000in\ue000na\ue000\u010delo\ue000postavijo dva\ue000svoja\ue000konzula.\ue000L.\ue000508\ue000p.n.\u0161.\ue000ustanovijo\ue000republiko\ue000 \u2013\ue000ljudstvo\ue000samo\ue000ureja\ue000svoje\ue000zadeve.\ue000Konzula\ue000sta\ue000samo\ue000najvi\u0161ja uradnika izvr\u0161ilne oblasti. Zakonodajno oblast ima ljudstvo,\ue000izvr\u0161uje\ue000pa\ue000jo\ue000v\ue000ljudskih\ue000tribunah.\ue000Rimljani\ue000se\ue000po\u010dasi\ue000krepijo,\ue000si\ue000pridobivajo\ue000primat\ue000med\ue000sosednjimi

mesti.\ue000338\ue000p.n.\u0161.\ue000je\ue000bila\ue000ustanovljena\ue000latinska\ue000mestna\ue000zveza,\ue000v\ue000kateri\ue000ima\ue000Rim\ue000primat. Ker so potrebovali nove
povr\u0161ine\ue000za\ue000pridelovanje\ue000hrane,\ue000so\ue000zavzemali\ue000ozemlja\ue000na Apeninskem polotoku in ustanavljali\ue000kolonije.\ue000Po\ue000

podreditvi\ue000Apeninskega\ue000polotoka\ue000so\ue000se\ue000za\u010deli\ue000ozirati\ue000v\ue000Sredozemlje. Kmalu\ue000je\ue000Rim\ue000postal\ue000sredozemska\ue000velesila.\ue000 Konkurirala\ue000mu\ue000je\ue000le\ue000Kartagina,\ue000mo\u010dna\ue000in\ue000bogata\ue000dr\u017eava.\ue000Sledil\ue000je\ue000neizbe\u017een\ue000konflikt\ue000med obemi \u2013\ue000gre\ue000za\ue000primat\ue000 v\ue000Sredozemlju:\ue000

\u2022
Prva\ue000punska\ue000vojna\ue000(264\ue000\u2013\ue000241\ue000p.n.\u0161.)\ue000\u2013\ue000Rimljani\ue000zmagajo,\ue000pripada\ue000jim\ue000Sicilija.\ue000Organizirajo\ue000jo\ue000
kot\ue000prvo\ue000provinco.\ue000Provinca\ue000je\ue000na\u010din\ue000organiziranja\ue000nove\ue000teritorialne\ue000oblike zunaj dr\u017eave. Pridobitev
Sicilije\ue000ni\ue000samo\ue000strate\u0161kega\ue000pomena,\ue000ampak\ue000je\ue000pomembna tudi zaradipridobivanja\ue000p\u0161enice.\ue000\ue000
\u2022
Druga\ue000punska\ue000vojna\ue000(220\ue000\u2013\ue000201\ue000p.n.\u0161.)\ue000\u2013\ue000Rim\ue000ima\ue000mo\u010dno\ue000vojsko\ue000ter\ue000prednost,\ue000da\ue000je\ue000strnjena\ue000

dr\u017eava,\ue000Kartagina\ue000pa\ue000je\ue000razvle\u010dena\ue000po\ue000severnoafri\u0161ki\ue000obali. Adut Karta\u017eanov je mo\u010dna mornarica, na
za\u010detku\ue000so\ue000tudi\ue000sposobnej\u0161i\ue000poveljniki,\ue000vendar\ue000imajo\ue000podkupljivo vodstvo. Karta\u017eani so pri\u0161li celo pred
vrata\ue000Rima\ue000(Hanibal).\ue000Rimljani\ue000so\ue000se\ue000izkazali\ue000kot\ue000dobri\ue000vojaki,\ue000saj\ue000so\ue000se\ue000v\ue000ve\u010dih vojnah hitro u\u010dili in
krepili.\ue000Niso\ue000borili\ue000le\ue000s\ue000Kartagino,\ue000temve\u010d\ue000tudi\ue000z\ue000drugimi (Makedonija, gr\u0161ke dr\u017eavice). Po 2. punski vojni

Rimu\ue000pripade\ue000velik\ue000del\ue000\u0160panije\ue000(iz\ue000rudnikov\ue000pridobivajo\ue000zlato,\ue000srebro,\ue000baker...)\ue000
\u2022
Tretja\ue000punska\ue000vojna\ue000(149\ue000p.n.\u0161.)\ue000je\ue000relativno\ue000kratka.\ue000v\ue000tej\ue000vojni\ue000Rimljani\ue000uni\u010dijo\ue000Kartagino\ue000\u2013\ue000
po\u017egejo\ue000in\ue000posolijo.\ue000\ue000
\ue000
Rim\ue000preraste\ue000v\ue000svetovno\ue000dr\u017eavo.\ue000Na\ue000V\ue000nima\ue000nasprotnika (uni\u010dil\ue000je\ue000gr\u0161ke\ue000dr\u017eavice
,\ue000ki\ue000niso\ue000bile\ue000enotne;\ue000strl\ue000je\ue000
zibelko\ue000anti\u010dne\ue000civilizacije).\ue000Ko\ue000pridejo\ue000Rimljani\ue000v\ue000stik\ue000z\ue000Grki,\ue000prevzamejo velik del njihove kulture in ob \u0161iritvi
Rima\ue000so\ue000po\ue000celotnem\ue000ozemlju\ue000raz\u0161irili\ue000tudi\ue000gr\u0161ko\ue000kulturo.\ue000

Gospodarski\ue000problemi\ue000\ue000\ue000V\ue000Rim\ue000prihaja\ue000ogromna\ue000koli\u010dina\ue000dobrin.\ue000Iz\ue000provinc\ue000predvsem poceni \u017eito,\ue000kovine.\ue000Delo\ue000
malih\ue000kmetov\ue000postane\ue000nerentabilno,\ue000zato\ue000ubobo\u017eajo,\ue000bankrotirajo in se brez premo\u017eenja selijo v Rim. Tam pa so
le\ue000sredstvo\ue000za\ue000politi\u010dne\ue000manipulacije.\ue000Rimljani\ue000so\ue000sami volili, zato so bogati politi\u010dni\ue000stremuhi\ue000podkupovali\ue000
mno\u017eice\ue000(zastonj\ue000hrana,\ue000organizirane\ue000zabave...).\ue000Nekateri\ue000magistrati\ue000si\ue000prizadevajo za razne (agrarne) reforme,

vendar\ue000niso\ue000uspe\u0161ni.\ue000\ue000
V\ue000bojih\ue000za\ue000oblast\ue000pride\ue000leta\ue00091\ue000p.n.\u0161.\ue000do\ue000vojne\ue000med\ue000Rimom\ue000in\ue000zavezni\u0161kimi\ue000mesti,\ue000saj\ue000tudi\ue000v\ue000ostalih\ue000mestih\ue000ho\u010dejo\ue000
rimsko\ue000dr\u017eavljanstvo.\ue000Vojna\ue000se\ue000kon\u010da\ue000leta\ue00089\ue000p.n.\u0161.\ue000in\ue000Rim\ue000\u0161e\ue000vedno\ue000ohrani\ue000primat,\ue000vendar mora podeliti\ue000
dr\u017eavljanstvo\ue000mestom,\ue000ki\ue000so\ue000mu\ue000pomagala\ue000v\ue000vojni.\ue000Sledi\ue000obdobje\ue000dr\u017eavljanskih\ue000vojn.\ue000Leta\ue00027\ue000p.n.\u0161.\ue000okli\u010dejo\ue000
Oktavijana\ue000za\ue000cesarja\ue000in\ue000mu\ue000podelijo\ue000naziv\ue000avgustus\ue000(vzvi\u0161eni).\ue000\ue000Avgust\ue000uvede\ue000principat\ue000(gre\ue000za\ue000obliko\ue000vladavine,\ue000
kjer\ue000na\ue000\u010delu\ue000dr\u017eave\ue000stoji\ue000cesar\ue000\u2013\ue000princeps,\ue000\ue000ki\ue000pa\ue000vsaj\ue000teoreti\u010dno\ue000ni\ue000vladar\ue000(primus\ue000inter\ue000partes\ue000\u2013\ue000prvi\ue000med\ue000
enakimi).\ue000To\ue000je\ue000konec\ue000republike.\ue000\u0160e\ue000vedno\ue000obstaja\ue000ideja\ue000o\ue000volji\ue000ljudstva,\ue000delitvi\ue000oblasti, vendar vse funkcije\ue000
prehajajo\ue000v\ue000roke\ue000cesarja.\ue000Avgust\ue000zagotovi\ue000Rimu\ue000200\ue000let\ue000relativnega\ue000miru\ue000in\ue000blagostanja\ue000(pax\ue000romana
).\ue000V\ue000\u010dasu\ue000
Avgusta\ue000postane\ue000Rim\ue000svetovna\ue000dr\u017eava.\ue000V\ue000tem\ue000delu\ue000sveta ni Rimu enakega. Edina konkurenca je Kitajska, vendar
je\ue000predale\u010d,\ue000da\ue000bi\ue000pri\u0161lo\ue000do\ue000konfliktov,\ue000prihaja\ue000le\ue000do\ue000trgovanja.\ue000\ue000

Rimljani\ue000so\ue000osvojenim\ue000teritorijem\ue000pustili\ue000veliko\ue000mero\ue000samouprave, saj s tem la\u017eje ohranijo teritorij. Veliko manj razvitih\ue000je\ue000sprejelo\ue000rimsko\ue000kulturo\ue000in\ue000na\u010din\ue000\u017eivljenja,\ue000sicer pa so Rimljani podjarmljena ljudstva pustili pri miru.\ue000 Rimski\ue000imperij\ue000se\ue000obdr\u017ei\ue000kar\ue000nekaj\ue000\u010dasa\ue000skupaj\ue000tudi\ue000zato, ker so vse meje naravne meje (Z \u2013\ue000Atlantik,\ue000J\ue000\u2013\ue000pu\u0161\u010dava,\ue000 V\ue000\u2013\ue000\u010crno\ue000morje,\ue000velike\ue000reke,\ue000gorovje;\ue000edino\ue000na\ue000S\ue000gradijo\ue000Rimljani obrambni zid).\ue000

2\ue000

Propad\ue000rimskega\ue000cesarstva\ue000se\ue000je\ue000za\u010del,\ue000ko\ue000je\ue000za\u010dela\ue000popu\u0161\u010dati\ue000osnovna\ue000celica\ue000\u2013\ue000dru\u017eina.\ue000Zunanji\ue000faktorji:\ue000imperij\ue000
je\ue000bil\ue000ogromen,\ue000vendar\ue000je\ue000bila\ue000uprava\ue000neuspe\u0161na.\ue000Prihaja\ue000do\ue000sovra\u017enih\ue000napadov,\ue000bojev\ue000z\ue000Barbari,\ue000tudi\ue000notranji
propad.\ue000Zvrsti\ue000se\ue000veliko\ue000nekompetentnih\ue000vladarjev.\ue000\u017divljenje\ue000postaja\ue000vedno\ue000slab\u0161e.\ue000Dr\u017eava\ue000dviguje\ue000davke,\ue000ker\ue000
rabi\ue000denar.\ue000Rim\ue000je\ue000poveril\ue000pobiranje\ue000davkov\ue000zasebnikom\ue000(zakup\ue000davkov),\ue000ti\ue000pa\ue000so\ue000brutalno\ue000izterjevali\ue000davke,\ue000zato
se\ue000je\ue000ljudstvo\ue000upiralo.\ue000Leta\ue000300\ue000cesar\ue000Dioklecijan\ue000uvede\ue000absolutno\ue000diktaturo\ue000(dominus\ue000et\ue000deus\ue000\u2013\ue000vladar\ue000in\ue000

bo\u017eanstvo)\ue000\u2013\ue000dominat.\ue000Za\u010dasno\ue000ustavi\ue000propadanje.\ue000Po\ue000Dioklecianu\ue000pa\ue000gre\ue000samo \u0161e navzdol. Leta 326 preseli
prestolnico\ue000v\ue000Konstantinopel.\ue000Leta\ue000476\ue000se\ue000kon\u010da\ue000Z\ue000imperij,\ue000V\ue000del\ue000pa\ue000se\ue000obdr\u017ei\ue000do\ue000leta\ue0001453,\ue000ko\ue000Bizanc\ue000zasedejo\ue000
Turki.\ue000
2 Razvoj\ue000prava\ue000
Preu\u010devanje\ue000se\ue000za\u010dne\ue000l.\ue000451/49\ue000zaradi\ue000Zakonika\ue000XII.\ue000plo\u0161\u010d.\ue000Obdobje\ue000razdelimo\ue000na\ue000ve\u010d\ue000enot\ue000in\ue000jih\ue000poimenujemo\ue000
po\ue000tem,\ue000kar\ue000obdobje\ue000najbolj\ue000konkretizira.\ue000
\ue000

V\ue000civilnem\ue000obdobju\ue000je\ue000najbolj\ue000vplivno\ue000civilno\ue000pravo.\ue000Leta\ue000201.\ue000p.n.\u0161.\ue000staro\ue000pravo\ue000ne\ue000ustreza\ue000ve\u010d\ue000in\ue000nastopi\ue000
praetor\ue000\u2013\ue000praetorsko\ue000pravo.\ue000Kasneje\ue000je\ue000praetor\ue000\u0161e\ue000dejavnik,\ue000vendar\ue000ne\ue000prevladujo\u010d.\ue000V\ue000\u010dasu\ue000Avgusta\ue000delujejo\ue000
klasi\u010dni\ue000pravniki\ue000\u2013\ue000klasi\u010dno\ue000obdobje\ue000do\ue000l.\ue000230\ue000(umrejo\ue000vsi\ue000klasi\u010dni\ue000pravniki)\ue000ali\ue000do\ue000l.\ue000300\ue000(Dioklecianovi\ue000akti\ue000
vsebujejo\ue000\u0161e\ue000elemente\ue000klasi\u010dnega\ue000prava).\ue000Sledi\ue000postklasi\u010dno\ue000obdobje\ue000do\ue000l.\ue000565,\ue000ko\ue000umre\ue000Justinjan.\ue000

2.1 Civilnopravno\ue000obdobje\ue000
ius\ue000civile\ue000\u2013\ue000civilno\ue000pravo\ue000
Gre\ue000za\ue000tiste\ue000norme,\ue000ki\ue000veljajo\ue000samo\ue000za\ue000rimske\ue000dr\u017eavljane\ue000(cives\ue000romani).\ue000Z\ue000njim\ue000se\ue000sre\u010damo\ue000\u017ee\ue000v\ue000zakoniku\ue000XII.\ue000
Plo\u0161\u010d.\ue000Zakoniku\ue000XII.\ue000plo\u0161\u010d\ue000so\ue000sledili\ue000novi\ue000zakoni,\ue000ki\ue000so\ue000jih\ue000sprejemali\ue000Rimljani\ue000v\ue000ljudskih\ue000skup\u0161\u010dinah.\ue000\ue000
2.1.1 Zakonik\ue000XII.\ue000Plo\u0161\u010d\ue000
Socialna\ue000struktura:\ue000\ue000
\u2022
patriciji\ue000\u2013\ue000urejajo\ue000in\ue000vodijo\ue000dru\u017ebo,\ue000bogati,\ue000manj\u0161ina\ue000
\u2022
plebejci\ue000\u2013\ue000ve\u010dina,\ue000mali\ue000kmetje,\ue000brez\ue000politi\u010dnih\ue000pravic\ue000
Plebejci\ue000\u017ee\ue000zgodaj\ue000za\u010dnejo\ue000z\ue000bojem\ue000za\ue000izena\u010ditev\ue000s\ue000patriciji. Patriciji\ue000so\ue000vedeli,\ue000da\ue000so\ue000\u017eivljenjsko\ue000odvisni\ue000od\ue000
plebejcev\ue000(voja\u0161ka\ue000obramba,\ue000pridelava\ue000hrane\ue000za\ue000pre\u017eivetje). To so plebejci izkoristili. Za svoj boj so uporabili
secesijo\ue000\u2013\ue000odselitev.\ue000Ko\ue000je\ue000Rimu\ue000grozil\ue000sovra\u017eni\ue000napad,\ue000so\ue000se\ue000izselili\ue000iz\ue000mesta. Patriciji so morali\ue000popu\u0161\u010dati.\ue000Teh\ue000
izselitev\ue000je\ue000bilo\ue000ve\u010d\ue000in\ue000z\ue000vsako\ue000so\ue000plebejci\ue000dobili\ue000ve\u010d\ue000pravic. Tako so se plebejci\ue000pravno\ue000izena\u010dili\ue000s\ue000patriciji.\ue000Prvi\u010d\ue000so\ue000
se\ue000plebejci\ue000izselili\ue000l.\ue000494\ue000p.n.\u0161.\ue000\ue000in\ue000takrat\ue000dobili\ue000svojega\ue000dr\u017eavnega uradnika\u2013\ue000ljudskega\ue000tribuna
,\ue000ki\ue000je\ue000skrbel\ue000za\ue000

plebejce,\ue000omejeval\ue000samovoljo\ue000patricijev,\ue000razlagal\ue000je\ue000pravo\ue000in\ue000delil\ue000pravico.\ue000V\ue000tistem\ue000\u010dasu\ue000pravne norme niso bile zapisane,\ue000prehajale\ue000so\ue000iz\ue000roda\ue000v\ue000rod.\ue000Ob\u010dutek,\ue000da\ue000se\ue000jih je treba dr\u017eati, jim je dajala tradicija\ue000\ue000obi\u010dajno\ue000pravo\ue000\u2013\ue000 ni\ue000uzakonjeno\ue000pravo\ue000\u2192\ue000vsak\ue000si\ue000je\ue000lahko\ue000razlagal\ue000po\ue000svoje.\ue000Naslednji\ue000uspeh\ue000plebejcev je bil, da so dosegli, da se dolo\u010dene\ue000pravne\ue000norme\ue000zapi\u0161ejo\ue000in\ue000uzakonijo.\ue000Nastal\ue000jeZakonik\ue000XII.\ue000Plo\u0161\u010d,\ue000ki\ue000je\ue000edina\ue000v\ue000Rimu\ue000nastala\ue000

kodifikacija\ue000rimskega\ue000prava.\ue000Ne\ue000uzakoni\ue000vsega\ue000prava,\ue000ve\u010dina\ue000ga\ue000je\ue000\u0161e\ue000vedno\ue000kot\ue000obi\u010dajno\ue000pravo\ue000.Vsebuje\ue000pa\ue000
pomembno\ue000tematiko\ue000in\ue000zaznamuje\ue000pravni\ue000razvoj.\ue000V\ue000normah zakonika se ka\u017eejo takratne trde razmere v dru\u017ebi.

Posega\ue000na\ue000vsa\ue000podro\u010dja\ue000(kazensko,\ue000sakralno\ue000\u2013\ue000versko,\ue000obligacijsko,\ue000stvarno,\ue000dedno\ue000pravo,\ue000pravni\ue000postopek). Pravila,\ue000ki\ue000jih\ue000uzakoni\ue000zakonik\ue000imenujemo\ue000IUS\ue000CIVILE\ue000ali\ue000civilno\ue000pravo.\ue000To\ue000so\ue000tiste\ue000odlo\u010dbe,\ue000ki\ue000veljajo\ue000samo\ue000za\ue000 rimske\ue000dr\u017eavljane.\ue000Zato\ue000to\ue000obdobje\ue000imenujemo\ue000obdobje civilnega prava.\ue000

Temeljno\ue000dru\u017ebeno\ue000celico\ue000predstavlja\ue000dru\u017eina.\ue000
Dru\u017einski\ue000poglavar\ue000je\ue000pater\ue000familias.\ue000Podrejeni\ue000so\ue000mu\ue000vsi\ue000dru\u017einski\ue000\u010dlani:\ue000filius\ue000(sin),\ue000filia\ue000(h\u010di)\ue000in\ue000vsi\ue000nadalnji\ue000
potomci.\ue000Ko\ue000pater\ue000familias\ue000umre,\ue000postane\ue000vsak\ue000njegov mo\u0161ki potomec pater familias svoje rodbine \u2013\ue000izrazito\ue000
patriarhalna\ue000ureditev.\ue000Pater\ue000familias\ue000ima\ue000oblast\ue000nad\ue000svojo\ue000\u017eeno\ue000\u2013\ue000uxor.\ue000Vpra\u0161anje\ue000o\ue000tem\ue000ali\ue000je\ue000\u017eena\ue000pod\ue000mo\u017eevo\ue000
(in\ue000manu)\ue000ali\ue000o\u010detovo\ue000(sine\ue000manu)\ue000oblastjo\ue000je\ue000v\ue000obliki\ue000zakona.\ue000Ti\ue000dve\ue000obliki\ue000se\ue000razlikujeta le formalno. \ue000
Manus\ue000zakon\ue000\u2013\ue000\u017eenska\ue000izpod\ue000oblasti\ue000o\u010deta\ue000preide\ue000pod\ue000mo\u017eevo\ue000oblast.\ue000
Sine\ue000manus\ue000zakon\ue000\u2013\ue000\u017eenska\ue000ostane\ue000pod\ue000o\u010detovo\ue000oblastjo.\ue000
3\ue000
Pravno\ue000gledano\ue000ima\ue000\u017eena\ue000enaka\ue000pooblastila\ue000kot\ue000h\u010di.\ue000Mo\u017e je lahko \u017eeno ali otroke tudi usmrtil. Vendar pa ni \u0161lo
za\ue000popolno\ue000samovoljo,\ue000moral\ue000je\ue000sklicati\ue000dru\u017einsko\ue000sodi\u0161\u010de, ki je potem odlo\u010dalo o zadevi.Edino\ue000pater\ue000familias\ue000je\ue000
bil\ue000po\ue000rimskem\ue000pravu\ue000sposoben\ue000za\ue000vse\ue000pravne\ue000pravice\ue000in\ue000dol\u017enosti \u2013\ue000edini\ue000je\ue000lahko\ue000imel\ue000premo\u017eenje.\ue000Vse,\ue000kar\ue000je\ue000
pridobil\ue000kdo\ue000drug,\ue000je\ue000pridobil\ue000za\ue000o\u010deta.\ue000
V\ue000tem\ue000\u010dasu\ue000je\ue000dru\u017eba\ue000\u017ee\ue000su\u017enjelastni\u0161ka.\ue000Su\u017eenj\ue000je\ue000\u017ee\ue000skoraj\ue000\u010dlan\ue000dru\u017eine.\ue000
2.1.2 Ljudske\ue000skup\u0161\u010dine\ue000
comitia\ue000\u2013\ue000ljudska\ue000skup\u0161\u010dina\ue000
Komicialna\ue000zakonodaja\ue000\u2013\ue000upravljajo\ue000jo\ue000v\ue000ljudskih\ue000skup\u0161\u010dinah.\ue000Razli\u010dne\ue000ljudske\ue000skup\u0161\u010dine:\ue000
Kurijatne\ue000lj.\ue000sk.\ue000so\ue000ostanek\ue000preteklosti\ue000in\ue000imajo\ue000le\ue000nek\ue000ceremonialen\ue000zna\u010daj.\ue000Sprejemajo\ue000zakon\ue000o\ue000podelitvi\ue000oblasti\ue000
funkcionarjem\ue000\u2013\ue000formalnost.\ue000
Centurijatne\ue000lj.\ue000sk.\ue000so\ue000zbori\ue000mo\u0161kih\ue000rimskih\ue000dr\u017eavljanov,\ue000ki\ue000so\ue000se\ue000zbirali\ue000v\ue000obliki\ue000voja\u0161kih\ue000formacij\ue000(osnovna\ue000je\ue000
centurija).\ue000Pristojne\ue000so\ue000bile\ue000za\ue000zakonodajo

,\ue000volile\ue000so\ue000vi\u0161je\ue000magistrate\ue000in\ue000odlo\u010dale\ue000o\ue000prito\u017ebah\ue000dr\u017eavljanov\ue000zoper\ue000 smrtno\ue000obsodbo,\ue000ki\ue000so\ue000jo\ue000izrekli\ue000vi\u0161ji\ue000magistrati\ue000(vi\u0161ji\ue000mag.\ue000imel\ue000tudi\ue000pravosodno\ue000funkcijo\ue000\u2013\ue000imperium).\ue000\u010ce\ue000je\ue000bil\ue000 tujec\ue000obsojen\ue000na\ue000smrt,\ue000je\ue000bil\ue000takoj\ue000ubit,\ue000\u010de\ue000pa\ue000je\ue000vi\u0161ji\ue000magistrat izrekel smrtno obsodbo dr\u017eavljanu, se je ta lahko prito\u017eil\ue000na\ue000lj.\ue000sk.\ue000

Tributne\ue000lj.\ue000sk.\ue000(tribut\ue000=\ue000okraj):\ue000zbirale\ue000so\ue000se\ue000v\ue000okrajih.\ue000Volile\ue000so\ue000le\ue000ni\u017eje\ue000magistrate.\ue000
Plebejski\ue000zbori\ue000(concilia\ue000plebis)\ue000so\ue000volili\ue000svoje\ue000magistrate,\ue000ljudskega\ue000tribuna\ue000(494).\ue000Sprejemali\ue000so\ue000zakonodajne\ue000
sklepe\ue000(plebis\ue000scitum),\ue000ki\ue000pa\ue000niso\ue000imeli\ue000splo\u0161ne\ue000veljave,\ue000veljali\ue000so\ue000le\ue000za\ue000plebejce.\ue000\u0160ele\ue000kasneje\ue000so\ue000postali\ue000veljavni\ue000za\ue000
vse\ue000dr\u017eavljane.\ue000
Predlog\ue000zakona\ue000je\ue000skup\u0161\u010dini\ue000predlo\u017eil\ue000magistrat,\ue000tam\ue000pa so potem o tem glasovali. Odlo\u010dala je ve\u010dina. Zakon je
lahko\ue000veljal\ue000takoj,\ue000ali\ue000pa\ue000je\ue000bil\ue000dolo\u010den\ue000\u010das\ue000do\ue000veljave\ue000(vacatio\ue000legis).\ue000
V\ue000celotnem\ue000obdobju\ue000imajo\ue000zakonodajno\ue000mo\u010d\ue000ljudske\ue000skup\u0161\u010dine,\ue000vendar\ue000jih\ue000je\ue000v\ue000obdobju\ue000principata\ue000izrinil\ue000senat.\ue000\ue000
2.1.3 Senat\ue000
Senat\ue000je\ue000stara\ue000institucija\ue000rimske\ue000dr\u017eave.\ue000\u0160lo\ue000je\ue000za\ue000zbor\ue000starih\ue000izku\u0161enih\ue000rimskih\ue000dr\u017eavljanov.\ue000Dolgo\ue000\u010dasa\ue000so\ue000ga\ue000

sestavljali\ue000predstavniki\ue000najbogatej\u0161ih\ue000dru\u017ein,\ue000ki\ue000so\ue000praviloma\ue000preden\ue000so\ue000pri\u0161li\ue000v\ue000senat\ue000prehodili\ue000celotno\ue000upravno\ue000 pot.\ue000V\ue000obdobju\ue000republike\ue000senat\ue000nima\ue000zakonodajne\ue000oblasti \u2013\ue000ima\ue000le\ue000vlogo\ue000posvetovalnega\ue000telesa.\ue000Senat\ue000de\ue000facto\ue000 odlo\u010da\ue000o\ue000zunanji\ue000politiki\ue000in\ue000delno\ue000tudi\ue000o\ue000notranji\ue000politiki.\ue000Izdaja\ue000svoje\ue000sklepe\ue000(senatus\ue000consulta).\ue000Senatovi\ue000sklepi\ue000 (SC-Senatus\ue000Consulta)\ue000pa\ue000niso\ue000obvezni,\ue000nimajo\ue000mo\u010di\ue000zakona, vendar u\u010dinkujejo na podlagi senatove avtoritete.\ue000 Na\ue000za\u010detku\ue000razvoja\ue000rimskega\ue000prava\ue000je\ue000moral\ue000senat\ue000potrditi zakon sprejet v ljudski skup\u0161\u010dini. Kasneje so to

omejili,\ue000tako\ue000da\ue000je\ue000senat\ue000sprejel\ue000le\ue000predlog\ue000zakona\ue000o\ue000katerem\ue000je\ue000potem\ue000razpravljala\ue000ljudska\ue000skup\u0161\u010dina.\ue000V\ue000obdobju
principata\ue000pa\ue000je\ue000dobil\ue000zakonodajno\ue000mo\u010d.\ue000
2.1.4 Magistrati\ue000
Vi\u0161ji:\ue000 \ue000
\u2022
diktator\ue000(1)\ue000
\u2022
konzul\ue000(2)\ue000
\u2022praetorji:\ue000
o
mestni\ue000(praetor\ue000urbanus)\ue000
o
tujski\ue000(praetor\ue000pregrinus)\ue000
Ni\u017eji:\ue000

\u2022cenzor\ue000(2)\ue000
\u2022kvestor\ue000(2)\ue000
\u2022ljudski\ue000tribun\ue000
\u2022korilski\ue000edil\ue000
\u2022plebejski\ue000edil\ue000

Rimski\ue000magistrati\ue000so\ue000dr\u017eavni\ue000uradniki\ue000voljeni\ue000v\ue000ljudskih skup\u0161\u010dinah.\ue000Lo\u010dimo\ue000dve\ue000skupini\ue000vi\u0161je\ue000in\ue000ni\u017eje.\ue000Vi\u0161ji\ue000imajo\ue000 vrhovno\ue000oblast\ue000(pravosodna\ue000funkcija)\ue000-\ue000imperium\ue000(odlo\u010dal\ue000o\ue000\u017eivljenju\ue000in\ue000smrti,\ue000vojni,...).\ue000Rimski\ue000birokratski\ue000sistem\ue000 je\ue000zaznamovan\ue000z\ue000obliko\ue000piramide\ue000in\ue000sistemom\ue000kolegialnosti\ue000(vsaj\ue0002\ue000na\ue000isti\ue000funkcji\ue000\u2013\ue000en\ue000nadzira\ue000drugega,\ue000prepre\u010di\ue000 samovoljnost\ue000z\ue000ugovorom\ue000ali\ue000vetom).\ue000Funkcija\ue000je\ue000\u010dasovno\ue000omejena\ue000(ponavadi\ue000eno\ue000leto)\ue000Samovoljo\ue000prepre\u010duje\ue000 tudi\ue000piramidalni\ue000sistem.\ue000Tudi\ue000moderni\ue000sistemi\ue000poznajo\ue000\u010dasovno omejevanje funkcij, saj s tem prepre\u010dijo

prila\u0161\u010danje\ue000oblasti.\ue000Rimljani\ue000so\ue000s\ue000bali,\ue000da\ue000bi\ue000dr\u017eavni\ue000uradniki zlorabili oblast. Dr\u017eavo stavodila\ue000dva\ue000konzula,\ue000ki\ue000sta\ue000

predstavljala\ue000vrhovno\ue000oblast\ue000\u2013\ue000pravno,\ue000izvr\u0161ilno,\ue000sodno,\ue000voja\u0161ko\ue000oblast.\ue000Vsak\ue000konzul\ue000je\ue000lahko\ue000svojemu\ue000kolegu\ue000 izrekel\ue000intercessio\ue000\u2013\ue000ugovor\ue000ali\ue000pa\ue000veto.\ue000Samo\ue000kadar\ue000je\ue000Rimu\ue000grozila\ue000nevarnost\ue000so\ue000postavili\ue000diktatorja\ue000(samo\ue0006\ue000 mesecev).\ue000Pretor\ue000je\ue000dr\u017eavni\ue000uradnik,\ue000ki\ue000je\ue000dol\u017ean\ue000skrbeti\ue000za\ue000potek pravdanja.\ue000Na\ue000za\u010detku\ue000je\ue000eden\ue000(mestni\ue000\u2013\ue000

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