Our group chose this case as interesting to us because it is a common diseaseentity that is usually underestimated as a cause of mortality and morbidity to patients.We would like to make an outlook of what this case is and gather information that canhelp us learn how it occurs, manifest, develop and cause a disease.It is our goal to identify the risk factors that affects people making them at risk for the disease. How is the disease being treated. And by learning from the inputs we gather from out patient.We discuss pleural effusion as its definition as the collection of at least 10-20 mLof fluid in the pleural space. Pleural effusion develops because of excessive filtration or defective absorption of accumulated fluid. Pleural effusion may be a primarymanifestation or a secondary complication of many disorders. Pleural effusions areusually classified as transudates and exudates. Diseases that affect the filtration of pleural fluid result in transudate formation, such as in congestive heart failure andnephritis. Transudates usually occur bilaterally because of the systemic nature of thecausative disorders. Inflammation or injury increases pleural membrane permeability toproteins and various types of cells and leads to the formation of exudative effusionInfectious effusions are usually unilateral. However, a recent large Turkish studyrevealed bilateral effusion in 5% of 515 children.Its frequency occurs, as in the US: American and international frequenciesare similar. The prevalence of pleural infections appears to be increasing in somedeveloped countries; this could be partly due to increased referral of patients withthese conditions to tertiary-care pediatric hospitals. Nonbacterial infectious agents, such as viruses and
cause more pleural effusion in children than do bacterial organisms. Althoughbacteria are more likely than viruses to cause effusion, viral infections in children occur more frequently than bacterial infections, explaining the observation above. Asmany as 20% of the viral infections can cause small and transient effusions thatresolve spontaneously, affects internationally and more frequently on developed nations.Several decades ago, pleural effusion was a complication of 70% of all cases of
pneumonia, with positive cultures resulting from 80% of pleural-fluid specimens. In the late 1970s, pleural effusion occurred in 75% of cases of pneumonia secondary to
type b. In a report by Murphy et al,empyema complicated the course of pneumonia in 9 of 21 patients with
pneumonia. Chartrand and McCracken indicated that empyemacomplicated the course of pneumonia in 57 of 79 patients with
infections.Pleural effusion occurs in 6-12% of all cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) inchildren. Of 175 Spanish children with pulmonary TB, 39 (22.1%) had pleural effusion.