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Animal Cell Organelles

Animal Cell Organelles

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Published by: akhileshmoney on Feb 26, 2010
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Animal cell organelles
Cellorganellesare the structures within acell. They are a bit like the organs in a human body. They each have a specificrole to play and have a distinctive shape and size.
Cell Membrane
- The cell membrane encloses the cellcontents. Its main function is to control what gets into andout of the cell.
- The cytoplasm contains primarily water andprotein material. This is where the other cell organellesreside, and where most of the cellular activities takeplace.
- The nucleus generally contains the geneticmaterial for the cell. Because it contains the 
DNAandchromosomes, which affect the proteinsthat determine the activities of the cell, the nucleus can be considered to be the cell's control centre.
- Ribosomes are where protein synthesistakes place. Some are attached to the roughendoplasmic reticulum, and some are free in thecytoplasm.
- Lysosomes are membrane-bound sacs of enzymes. In a controlled and specificway, they breakdown old or unneeded parts of the cell into small organic molecules that can bereused.
- Mitochondria are large organelles where oxygen is combined with food to produceATP(adenosine triphosphate), the primary energy source for the cell. Mitochondriacontain their own DNA, RNA and ribosomes, and can reproduce themselves independently of the cell in which they are found.
Golgi Apparatus
- The Golgi apparatus is composed of small membranous sacs, and isassociated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Though its function is still not entirelyunderstood, it seems that proteins from the ER travel to the Golgi apparatus, where they aretransformed and packaged into sacs before being moved to their final destination.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
- The endoplasmic reticulum is a series of interconnectingflattened tubular tunnels. There are two sorts of endoplasmic reticulum - rough ER and smoothER. The rough ER has lots of attached ribosomes. The smooth ER has no attached ribosomes andso looks 'smooth'. The rough ER takes in the proteins made on the ribosomes so that theycannot escape into the cytoplasm. The smooth ER is not involved in protein synthesis, but hasother functions.Most of the proteins leaving the endoplasmic reticulum require further processing in the Golgiapparatus, before they are ready to perform functions within or outside the cell.
The interesting definitions of the animal cell organelles.
Cell membrane: a partially permeable membranemade of proteins that lets some stuff enter the celland others not, located outside around the cell.
 Nucleus: controls many cell function, controls protein synthesis, contains DNA(chromosomes), also contains nucleolus. Usually located in the middle of the cell.3.Cytoplasm: jelly like material in which holds the other organelles, it also holds nutrientsfor the organelles, located inside the cell membrane.
Vacuole: storage, holds digested food and waste materials that’s on their way out of thecell. Located in the cytoplasm.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum: a vast 
of interconnected, infolded tubes thattransport materials trough the cell. Contains enzymes and produces/ digest lipids andmembrane proteins. Connected to the nucleus’s membrane.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum: a vast system of interconnected, infolded sacks that movesmaterial trough the cell and produces proteins in the sacks. Rough because of theribosomes on it. Connected to the nucleus’s membrane.
Ribosomes: sites protein synthesis, contain rich RNA cytoplasmic granules. Highestconcentration on rough ER, also located throughout cytoplasm.8.Golgi apparatus: modification, storage, sorting, and dispatching of cell’s products,located near the nucleus.
of cell,
respiration, located in the cytoplasm.10.Nucleolus: produces ribosome’s RNA, located in the nucleus.
Lysosome: digests food, foreign materials, and damaged organelles, located in thecytoplasm.
Centrioles: makes microtubules, during mitosis it divides and moves to opposites sides onthe cell, located near the nucleus
) isa specialized subunit within acellthat has a specificfunction, and is usually separately enclosed within itsownlipid bilayer .
The name
comes from the idea that thesestructures are to cells what anorganis to the body(hence the name
the suffix
being adiminutive).Organelles are identified bymicroscopy, and can also be purified bycell fractionation. There are many types of organelles, particularly ineukaryoticcells.Prokaryotes  were once thought not to have organelles, but someexamples have now been identified.
History and terminology
In biology,
are defined as confined functionalunits within anorganism. Theanalogyof bodily organs to microscopic cellular substructures is obvious, as fromeven early works, authors of respective textbooks rarelyelaborate on the distinction between the two.
Credited as the first
to use adiminutiveof 
little organ) for cellular structures wasGerman zoologistKarl August Möbius(1884), who used the term "organula"
 (plural form of 
, the diminutive of latin 
). From the context, it is clear that he referred toreproduction related structures of  protists. In a footnote, which was published as a correction inthe next issue of the journal, he justified his suggestion to call organs of unicellular organisms"organella" since they are only differently formed parts of one cell, in contrast to multicellular organs of multicellular organisms. Thus, the original definition was limited to structures of unicellular organisms.It would take several years before
, or the later term
, became accepted andexpanded in meaning to include subcellular structures in multicellular organisms. Books around1900 fromValentin Häcker,
still referred to cellular 
. Later, both terms came to be used side by side:Bengt Lidforsswrote 1915 (in German) about "Organs or Organells".
Around 1920, the term organelle was used to describe propulsion structures ("motor organelle complex", i.e.,flagellaand their anchoring)
 and other protiststructures, such asciliates.
 Alfred Kühnwrote aboutcentriolesas division organelles, although he stated that,for Vahlkampfias, the alternative 'organelle' or 'product of structural build-up' had not yet been decided, withoutexplaining the difference between the alternatives.
In his 1953 textbook,Max Hartmannused the term for extracellular (pellicula, shells, cell walls) and intracellular skeletons of protists.
Later, the now-widely-used
definition of organelle emerged, after which only cellular structures with surroundingmembranehad been considered organelles. However, the moreoriginal definition of subcellular functional unit in general still coexists.
In 1978,Albert Frey-Wysslingsuggested that the term organelle should refer only to structuresthat convert energy, such as centrosomes, ribosomes, and nucleoli.
 This new definition,however, did not win wide recognition.
While most cell biologists consider the term
to be synonymous with "cellcompartment," other cell biologists choose to limitthe term organelle to include only those that areDNA-containing, having originated from formerly-autonomous microscopic organisms acquired viaendosymbiosis.The most notable of these organelles havingoriginated fromendosymbiont  bacteriaare:
mitochondria(in almost all eukaryotes)
chloroplasts(in plants, algae and protists).

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