California State Polytechnic University, PomonaME 220L Strength of Materials Laboratory
One of the principle concerns of an engineer is the analysis of materials used in structuralapplications. The term structure refers to any design that utilizes materials that supportloads and keeps deformation within acceptable limits. Designing machines, structures,and vehicles, which are reliable as well as safe and cost effective, requires a proper knowledge of engineering as well as material selection.Elementary mechanics of materials or strength of materials is the physical science thatlooks at the reaction of a body to movement and deformation due to mechanical, thermal,or other loads. The basis of virtually all mechanical design lies in how the material reactsto outside forces. Mechanics is the core of engineering analysis and is one of the oldest of the physical sciences. An in-depth understanding of material properties as well as howcertain materials react to outside stimulus is paramount to an engineering education.The basis of structural design is simply to design a component where the stress does notexceed the strength of the material, causing failure. These failures may include additionalcomplexities such as stresses that act in more than one direction, where the state of stressmay be biaxial or triaxial. Failure may also be due to components or materials containingflaws and / or cracks that will propagate failure. Still other failure mechanisms mayinvolve stresses applied for extended periods of time causing Creep, or stresses that arerepeatedly applied and removed leading to cyclical type failure.Material failures may be time dependant such as creep or fatigue failure due to cyclicalloading, or failures may be time independent where static loading causes rapid fracturingof the material. Time independent fracture or failure due to static loading may be brittle,where very little deformation in the material takes place, or ductile, where significant plastic deformation takes place before failure.Elastic and Plastic deformations are quantified in terms of normal and shear strain inelementary strength of materials studies. The effects of strains in a component are due todeformations such as bending, twisting or stretching. Some members rely ondeformations to function, such as a spring, but an excessive amount causing permanentchanges are typically avoided. Materials capable of sustaining large amounts of plasticdeformation are said to behave in a ductile manner, those that fracture without much plastic deformation are said to behave in a brittle manner.In this laboratory, students will have the opportunity to apply loads to various materialsunder different equilibrium conditions. The student will perform tests on materials intension, torsion, bending, and buckling. These conditions and/or constraints are designedto reinforce classroom theory by having the student perform required tests, analyzesubsequent data, and present the results in a professionally prepared report.