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Anaemia’s

Anaemia’s

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Published by Rayan

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Published by: Rayan on Feb 26, 2010
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05/11/2014

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Anaemia
 
Anaemia’s
Anaemia is present when there is a decrease in the level of haemoglobin in theblood < 13.5 g/dLin adult males or < 12 g/dLin adult females.
There are two classifications of anemia:
1.Classification according to the aetiology.
a.
Diminished RBCs production.
i.Deficiency of essential factors (Iron, vitamin B12 or folate).ii.Toxic factors (Inflammatory disease, hepatic and renal failure, drugs).iii.Endocrine deficiencies (Hypothyroidism, hypoadrenalism, hypopituitarism,hypogonadism, and reduced production of erythropoietin).iv.Invasion of bone marrow (Leukemia, secondary carcinoma, fibrosis).v.Disorders of developing red cells (Sideroblastic anemia, neoplastic disorders of erythropoiesis, hereditary disorders of Hbsynthesis like thalassaemia).vi.Failure of stem cells (Hypoplastic and aplastic anemia).b. Blood loss anemia.i.Acute (due to acute hemorrhage).ii.Chronic (due to GIT bleeding, menorrhagia).
c. Excessive destruction of RBC’s.
i.Haemolysis.
 
2. Classification according to the morphology
a. Microcytic (MCV < 100 fl)i.Iron deficiency anaemia.ii.Thalassemiaminor.iii.Sideroblastic anemia.iv.Lead poisoning.b. Macrocytic(MCV > 100 fl)i.Megaloblastic(due to vitamin B
12
& folic acid deficiency).ii.Macrocyticwithout megaloblastic(due to alcohol excess, cirrhosis of liver,hypothyroidism and reticulocytosis, marrow infiltration and myelodysplasticsyndrome.C. Normocytic(MCV 80-100 fl)i.Aplastic anemia (bone marrow failure).ii.Myelodysplasticsyndrome.iii.Anemia of chronic disease such as connective tissue disease, tuberculosis, chronicrenal failure.iv.Endocrine disorders e.g
hypothyroidism, hypopituitarism & Addison’s disease.
v.Hymolyticanemias.vi.Malignancy.vii.Malnutrition.

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