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[DETC2008-49304] A New Control Algorithm for Vehicle Stability Control

[DETC2008-49304] A New Control Algorithm for Vehicle Stability Control

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1 Copyright © 2008 by ASME
Proceedings of the10th International Conference onAdvanced Vehicle and Tire Technologies (AVTT)IDETC/CIE 2008August 3-6, 2008, New York City, New York, USA
DETC2008-49304
A NEW CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR VEHICLE STABILITY CONTROL
 
Seyed Hossein TamaddoniPhD Studenttamadoni@vt.eduSaied TaheriAssociate Professorstaheri@vt.eduCenter for Vehicle Systems and Safety (CVeSS)Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburg, VA USAABSTRACT
A new control algorithm and the adaptation laws requiredfor estimation of unknown vehicle parameters have beendeveloped for vehicle stability control (VSC). This algorithm isbased on the Lyapunov Direct Method. A vehicle model withtwo degrees of freedom (DOF) was used to develop the controlalgorithm. In developing the equations of motion for this simplemodel, a new approach for introducing the needed stabilizingforces and moments was developed. In addition, an eight DOFmodel was developed for control algorithm evaluation. Themodel includes lateral, longitudinal, yaw, and roll motions of the body plus the rotational DOFs for all of the four wheels.Also included in the model is a transient tire model taking intoaccount the tire lateral relaxation length. Using the validated 8DOF simulation model, the new control algorithm wasevaluated and the results show the advantages of using such anapproach for enhancing vehicle stability during emergencysteering maneuvers.
INTRODUCTION
Despite the fact that the United States has one of the bestroadway systems in the world, congestion is increasing andsafety remains a serious problem. Congestion takes its toll inlost productivity, costing the nation an estimated $40 billioneach year. Trucks and buses travel over 100 billion milesannually and face the same congestion, delays, and inherent lostproductivity experienced by the daily commuter. Vehiclecrashes represent another $150 billion in financial burden to theeconomy, and result in the loss of more than 40,000 livesannually in the United States [1].In recent years, electronic control systems have found theirway into automotive applications, resulting in significantimprovements in vehicle active safety. The active vehiclecontrol systems aim to improve the vehicle stability byintervening when the vehicle is at the physical limit of itsperformance. They assist the driver to keep control of thevehicle and at the same time provide the needed flexibility forthe vehicle to adapt to road variations. Various types of activecontrol systems have been developed in the past to enhance thestability and handling characteristics of the vehicle [2
 – 
7].Active front steering (AFS), active rear steering, four-wheelsteering (4WS), active suspension, and vehicle stability control(VSC) are some of the options widely explored. Electroniccontrol of vehicle dynamics has seen considerable effort in theintegration of individual active control systems.It has been known that vehicle stability(understeer/oversteer) is influenced by tire normal loadvariations during cornering [8]. This behavior can becompensated for by use of active or semi-active suspensionwhere the normal load variation on a tire can be controlled.The adaptive control algorithm developed here is based onthe Lyapunov Direct Method. A simple 2 DOF model has beenused to develop the control algorithm. This methodology couldbe extended to higher order systems of vehicle equations of motion, linear or nonlinear.To evaluate the control strategy developed here, a nonlinear8 DOF vehicle model along with the Magic Formula tire model
 
2 Copyright © 2008 by ASMEwere used. This is due to the fact that the control commands areexecuted through utilization of anti-lock braking system.Therefore, longitudinal vehicle motion and wheel dynamics hadto be modeled and included in the simulation program. Theeight degrees of freedom considered are body lateral,longitudinal, roll and yaw, and rotational motion of each wheel.
NOMENCLATURE
 Wheel angular velocity
 
 Tire side slip angle
 
 Applied steer angle at wheels
 
 Roll steer coefficient
 
 Camber angle
 
 Roll angle around roll axis of vehicle
  
 Longitudinal slip
 
 Inclination angle of roll axis w.r.t. horizontal plane
 
 Lateral tire relaxation length
 
 Camber roll coefficient
 
 Additional steer angle as a result of complianceand roll steer effects
a
 Horizontal distance between vehicle COG andfront axle
b
 Horizontal distance between vehicle COG and rearaxle
 
 Total roll stiffness
 
 Tire longitudinal slip stiffness
 
 Tire cornering stiffness
 x
 Longitudinal tire force
 y
 Lateral tire force
 z
 Vertical force on tire
h
 Roll centre height w.r.t. ground
 p
 I 
 Wheel total mass moment of inertia about therotation axis
 x
 I 
 Roll moment of inertia (about vehicle x-axis)
 xz
 I 
 Roll-yaw product of inertia
 y
 I 
 Pitch moment of inertia (about vehicle y-axis)
 z
 I 
 Yaw moment of inertia (about vehicle z-axis)
 
 Total roll damping
brake
 M 
 Brake moment on wheel
drive
 M 
 Drive moment on wheel
 z
 M 
 Tire self-aligning moment (about vehicle z-axis)
m
 Total vehicle mass
m
 
 Non-rolling part of total vehicle mass
 Yaw rate
e
 Tire effective rolling radius
u
 Longitudinal velocity
v
 Control force on lateral velocity
 Control force on yaw rate
v
 Lateral velocity
 x
 Desired Values of states
 x
 Error between actual and estimated values of states
ˆ
 p
 Estimated vehicle parameters
 p
 Error between actual and estimated values of parameters
 Adaptation gain matrix
 D
 Control gain matrix
VEHICLE PLANE DYNAMICS
The equations of motion for vehicle model of Figure 1 arederived in this section. Eight degrees of freedom are consideredfor this model (longitudinal, lateral, yaw, and roll motion of thevehicle center of gravity, and angular velocity of each wheel).The number of degrees of freedom and the resulting set of equations of motion are chosen to be applicable for furtherstudy of the probable extensions of the proposed control
algorithm. Using Lagrange’s equations, the resultant equations
of motion are as follows:
2, ,2,2 2, ,
2( )( )( ) ( )( )
uv z z r xz  x z r xz y z
mu mrv m h r m hr Qmv mru m h m hr Q I r I I m hu m rv Q I m h m hv m hru I I r m h I I r C m gh Q
         
        
    

 (1)
 
where the generalized forces Q
’s are given as
 
 
3 Copyright © 2008 by ASME
FIGURE 1- FULL VEHICLE MODEL [9]
 
1 1 1 12 2 2 21 1 1 12 2 2 21 1 1 142 2 2 21
cos sincossin cossin cossin cossin cos
u x y x yv x y x yr x y x y znn
Q F F Q F F Q aF abF bF Q
 
       
 (2)
 
Since vehicle stability is considered to be a transient event,a first order lateral force transient tire model is used. Equation(3) defines the tire side slip angle differential equations.
i ii ii
v a front wheelsuv br urear wheelsu
    
 
(3)
 
In addition, roll steer and lateral force compliance steereffects are included as shown in Equation (4).
i i i i i
c
 
 
 (4)
 
As mentioned previously, the rotational degrees of freedomfor all four wheels are also modeled.
, ,
 p i xi e i drive i brake
 I F r M
 (5)
 
The lateral force and aligning moment of each tire arecalculated using the well known 94 version of Magic Formulatire model. The longitudinal tire force is assumed to be a linearfunction of longitudinal slip and is given by
 xi i i
F
 
 
 (6)
 
where longitudinal slip
  
is defined as
i eii
u u
 
 (7)
 
MODEL VALIDATION
Using the equations of motion shown in the previoussection, a simulation model was developed in MATLAB©.Figure 2 shows the simulation results plotted alongside theavailable objective measurement data [10]. As can be seen fromthe yaw rate graph, the simulation results follow those of theexperimental results well.This simulation model is used for evaluation of the controlalgorithm that will be discussed later in this paper.
FIGURE 2- TIME HISTORY OF YAW RATE FOR2 AND 8 DOF MODELS
 
CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN
The method used in the paper requires the equations of motion for the dynamic system under consideration to be of theform:
 Ax Bx C
 (8)
 

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