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Glossary SPM Biology

Glossary SPM Biology



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Published by Mus Staqim Besut

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Published by: Mus Staqim Besut on Feb 26, 2010
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Abiotic Factors
(Faktor Abiosis/Faktor Abiotik)
Te abiotic actors o an ecosystem are the non-living or physical components which aect theorganisms in the ecosystem. Examples are water,temperature, light intensity, wind and rainall.
Te movement o water or dissolved substancesinto a cell. For example, absorption o digestedood takes place in the small intestine (ileum). Tesmall molecules o glucose and amino acids diusethrough the wall o the gut into the bloodstream.
A neurotransmitter released at nerve endings o neurones (nerve cells). It enables transmission o nerve impulses across the synaptic gap.
AIDS : Acquired Immune Deciency Syndrome
 (Sindrom kurang daya tahan)
A serious (oen atal) disease o the immune systemtransmitted through contaminated blood andblood products or by unprotected sexual contact. Itis caused by the Human Immunodeciency Virus(HIV) which attacks the immune system.
Active transport
(Pengangkutan akti)
Te energy requiring movement o substances intoor out o cells against a concentration gradient,that is, rom a region o lower concentration to aregion o higher concentration. Examples are:(a) Te reabsorption o glucose and amino acidsrom the glomerular ltrate in the kidneys.(b) Te absorption o minerals by the root hairs o plants.
(Adaptasi, Penyesuaian)
A change in the characteristics o an organism thatenable it to survive and reproduce in a particularenvironment.
(Bahan tambah)
Additives such as ood additives are substancesadded to ood to enhance favour, preserve it orimprove how it looks. Additives are divided intotwo groups, natural and man-made. Man-madeadditives are classied into six types, namely,antioxidants, favour enhancers, stabilisers,emulsiers, preservatives and ood colouring.
Adenosine triphosphate (AP)
(Adenosine triosat)
A molecule composed o the sugar ribose, the baseadenine, and three phosphate groups. AP is themajor energy carrier in cells.
Adipose tissue
(Tisu adipos)
issue composed o at cells ound beneath theskin. It may act as an insulator.
Adrenal cortex 
(Korteks adrenal)
Te outer part o the adrenal gland which secretessteroid hormones such as aldosterone.
Adrenal gland
(Kelenjar adrenal)
A mammalian endocrine gland located on the top o each kidney. Te adrenal gland secretes hormonesthat regulate salt reabsorption in the kidneys andrespond to stress (emergency) situations.
A hormone secreted by the adrenal gland inresponse to emergencies. It increases breathingrate, heart rate, blood fow to the brain andmuscles, and stimulates conversion o glycogeninto glucose. More glucose can then be oxidisedor additional energy.
Adrenal medulla
(Medula adrenal)
Te inner part o the adrenal gland which secretesthe hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline.
Adventitious root
(Akar adventitius)
A secondary root growing rom the stem orleaves.
Parenchyma tissue with air spaces ound in thestems o some plants.
An organism that needs oxygen to release energy rom ood.
Aerobic respiration
(Respirasi aerob)
Pathway by which glucose is completely oxidisedby oxygen to release energy, carbon dioxide andwater.
Te unique shape o a bird’s wings that producesli when the wings fap.
Te clumping o oreign substances ormicroorganisms by antibodies.
White blood cells with a non-granular cytoplasm.Te nucleus can be either bean-shaped orspherical in shape. For example, lymphocytes andmonocytes.
An alternative orm o a gene or a particularcharacteristic.
An organism that is able to release energy romood in the absence o oxygen.
A specic protein molecule produced by lymphocytes as a response to the entry o antigeninto the body.
A oreign substance that stimulates the productiono specic antibodies by lymphocytes; usually aprotein, carbohydrate or glycoprotein.
Appendicular skeleton
(Rangka apendaj)
Te skeleton that is made up o the bones o thelimbs as well as the pectoral and pelvic girdles.
A vessel that carries blood away rom the heart toorgans throughout the body.
Progressive build up o plaques that causenarrowing o arteries and obstruction o bloodfow.
An upper chamber o the heart that receives bloodrom the veins and orces the blood by muscularcontraction into the ventricles.
Any o the chromosomes in a cell other than the sexchromosomes (that is, not the X or Y chromosomein humans).
Producer. An organism able to synthesise it’s ownood rom inorganic compounds.
Balanced diet
(Gizi seimbang)
A balanced diet contains all the essential nutrients(carbohydrates, proteins, ats, minerals, vitamins,bre and water) in correct proportion to meet therequirements o the body.
A type o white blood cell that releases heparin toprevent intravascular blood clot ormation. Tey are involved in certain allergic reactions.
Benedict’s test
(Ujian Benedict)
A biochemical test to determine the presence o a reducing sugar, or example, glucose. Benedict’sreagent (a blue solution containing coppersulphate) orms a green, yellow, orange or brick red precipitate in the presence o a reducing sugar.
A greenish-yellow liquid secretion that is producedby the liver and stored in the gall bladder orrelease into the small intestine during digestion.It is a complex mixture o bile salts (that emulsiy ats), bile pigments, water and cholesterol.
Biotic actors
(Faktor Biosis / Faktor Biotik)
Te living organisms ound within an ecosystem.Tese include producers, consumers anddecomposers.
A hollow sphere o cells developing rom themorula; the stage o implantation in the uterinewall.
Dilated pouch at the junction o the small andlarge intestines, terminating in the appendix. Ithas no known unction in humans. In herbivorousanimals like rabbits and cows, the caecum is quitelong and contains cellulose-digesting bacteria.
Te action that causes water to rise in a narrow vessel. Tis is caused by cohesion between watermolecules and adhesion between water moleculesand walls o vessels.
Te smallest blood vessel with a wall only onecell thick; allows exchange o substances betweenblood and interstitial fuid.
Cardiac muscle
(Otot kardium)
A type o muscle ound in the heart. It is myogenic.Contractions are produced spontaneously, withoutnervous stimulation.
Cardiovascular system
(Sistem Kardiovaskular)
Te system consisting o the heart, blood andblood vessels.
An animal that eeds on other animals; a secondary consumer.
Carotid body 
(Jasad karotid)
issue mass in the wall o the carotid artery containing receptors that are sensitive to thecarbon dioxide and pH level in the blood, and tolow oxygen concentrations in the blood.
Non-elastic tissue ound at the ends o bones withmovable joints; unctions to protect bones romwear and tear.
Cell sap
(Sap sel)
A fuid in the vacuole o plant cells that consists o a high percentage o water and sugars, as well assome mineral salts.
A distinctive, inherited eature o an organism.
A substance consisting o DNA and proteins oundin the nucleus during interphase.
Chromosomal mutation
(Mutasi kromosom)
A change in the structure o chromosomes ornumber o chromosomes.
A long, threadlike structure made up o DNA andproteins; located in the nucleus.
Closed circulatory system
(Sistem peredarantertutup)
A type o circulatory system in which the blood isalways conned within the heart and vessels.
Te small vertebral bones ound at the end o the vertebral column; orms the tail o animals.
Fibers ound in the matrix o connective tissuessuch as the skin, bones and cartilage.
Plant cells with thick cellulose walls; normally ound beneath the epidermis.
Continuous variation
(Variasi selanjar)
Te continuous range o dierences that can beobserved in a certain characteristic o a species;such characteristics are controlled by a largenumber o genes.
Crossing over
(Pindah silang)
Te process o exchanging genetic material betweentwo non-sister chromatids o a pair o homologouschromosomes during Prophase I o meiosis.
Te action o certain soil bacteria in changing(reducing) nitrates into simpler compounds, suchas nitrites, ammonia, and eventually to nitrogengas.
Drug that slows downs the activity o the centralnervous system. Examples are alcohol andbarbiturates.
1. In the respiratory system, a muscularmembrane orming the foor o the chestcavity that, when contracted, pulls downwards,enlarging the chest cavity and causing air to bedrawn into the lungs.2. A birth control device that is placed over theneck o the cervix to prevent sperm romentering the uterus, thereby preventingpregnancy.
Short or dicotyledonous. A type o fowering plantcharacterised by seeds with two cotyledons or seedleaves, modied or ood storage.
Discontinuous variation
(Variasi tak selanjar)
Clearly dened dierences in a characteristic inindividuals o a species; it is qualitative (a eatureis either present or absent) and is controlled by asingle gene with two or more alleles.
Deoxyribonucleic acid, consisting o two deoxyri-bonucleotide strands coiled to orm a doublehelix.
Dominant allele
(Alel dominan)
An allele that produces the phenotypic charac-teristic both in the homozygous and heterozygouscondition.

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