4. Cognates: Students are taught to recognise cognates by learning the spelling or sound patternsthat correspond between the languages. Students should be aware of “true cognates” (i.e.,theatre-tiyatro) and “false cognates” (i.e., apartment-apartman).5. Deductive Application of Rule: Grammar rules are presented with examples. Exceptions to eachrule are also noted. Once students understand a rule, they are asked to apply it to some differentexamples.6. Fill-in-the blanks: Students are given a series of sentences with words missing. They fill in theblanks with new vocabulary items or necessary items of grammatical features.7. Memorisation: Students are given lists of target language vocabulary words and their nativelanguage equivalents and are asked to memorise them. Students are also required to memorisegrammatical rules and grammatical paradigms such as verb conjugations.8. Use words in Sentences: In order to show that students understand the meaning and use of anew vocabulary item, they make up sentences in which they use the new words.9. Composition: The teacher gives the students a topic to write about in the target language. Thetopic is based upon some aspect of the reading passage of the lesson. Sometimes, instead of creating a composition, students are asked to prepare a précis (pronounced as /preısı/).
The primary skills to be improved are “reading” and “writing”. Little attention is given tospeaking and listening, and almost no attention to pronunciation.
THE DIRECT METHOD (DM)
DM was born as a reaction to GTM because GTM cannot prepare learners for real life language situationsin which oral communication is the media.
1. Learning Theory:
Inductive learning is essential. There is a direct relation between form andmeaning. L2 learning is similar to L1 acquisition. There is a direct exposure to the targetlanguage. Exposure of Long chunks in the target language. Learning occurs naturally.
2. Language Theory:
Language is for oral use. Each language is unique. There is a direct relationbetween form and meaning. No other language should interfere when learning a language.
Not only art or literature, but also other aspects of culture (namely, life style, customs,traditions, institutions, food, daily habits, history, geography, etc.) Should be taken intoconsideration. Daily speech is important.
4. Teacher's Role:
The teacher usually directs the interactions but he/she is not as dominant as inGTM. Sometimes acts like a partner of the students.
5. Students' Role:
Sts are active participants. Sometimes pair works take place. Even the teacher takes roles in activities.
T- st and St - st interactions often occur.3